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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 1What are sex stereotypes and how are they shaped and maintained by societysocially shared beliefs based on individuals membership in either the male or female half of the human race beliefs about certain qualities assigned because of being female or maleambivalent sexism 1 hostile sexism when directed against women includes dominanceoriented paternalism derogatory beliefs about women and heterosexual hostility when directed against men includes resentment of paternalism derogatory beliefs about men and heterosexual hostility 2 benevolent sexism when directed against women includes protective paternalism idealization of women and desire for intimate relations when directed against men includes materialism idealization of menand desire for intimate relationsIs there a difference between sex and gendersex a persons biological maleness or femalenessgender nonphysiological aspects of being female or malethe cultural expectations for femininity and masculinityaccording to Matlin sexnarrow terminborn physiological characteristics relating to reproductionsex chromosomes or sex organs and gender broader term psychological characteristics and social categories created by human cultureChapter 2Early theoriesTheory set of ideas about how and why things happenthe idea of equality between the sexes can be found in the early writings of the Greek philosopher Plato who described women and men as having the same nature and worth and deserving the same education and legal treatmentlater in the writings of Aristotle the idea of feminine inferiority and incompleteness was developed in detail Aristotle claimed that the female state was an ordinary deformity and that a woman was a defective mantheories that viewed women as lesser beings than men because of their inability to produce enough heat to process body fluids into semen did not view women as opposites to menHow have psychoanalytic identification theories shaped our thinking about how and why girls and boys grow up the way they doSigmund Freuds TheoryId a nonrational system based on pleasure principle the source of sexual aggressive instincts reservoir of psychic energy for ego superegoEgo based on reality principles balances subjective needs and objective realitySuperego a nonrational internal representative of societys values and ideals learned in childhood enforced by rewards and punishmentsBoys Oedipus Complex an intense attraction to mothersees father as his rival feels hostile toward himprojects these hostile feeling onto the father thus believing that his father sees him as a rivalfears his father will castrate him castration anxietyto resolve this overwhelming fear he identifies with his father and stamps out his own desire for his motherresults masculine identification contempt of fear toward women strong superegoGirls Electra Complex originally bonded emotionally with mothernotices her won lack of a penispenis envy sense of inferiorityblames her mother for a lack of a penis withdraws affection from hereventually replaces her wish for a penis with a wish for a childto obtain a child she takes her father as a love object and so becomes jealous of her mothergradually realizes she cant possess her fatherreestablishes feminine identification with her mother and tries to become an attractive love object for another manresult feminine identification sexual attractiveness becomes main source of selfesteem rejection of clitoral sexuality feeling of inferiority contempt for other women wish for a child weak superegoFreud say men are more moral because men have a shorter more intense struggle between the ID and EGO so stronger superego more moral in contrast women have a longer less intense struggle between the ID and EGO so weaker Superego less moral Perspective on gender identification1Karen Horney Child identifies with the same sex parent May be difficult for girls because females are often valued less in society May be difficult for boys because they envy the mother and because they must switch identification from the mother to the father although accepting the possibility of penis envy in girls and castration anxiety in boys she noted that males are also envious of females because they envy pregnancy childbirth and motherhood
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