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Midterm Prep (Short Answers)

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Alison Luby

Lecture 1: Understanding Gender Sex: biological categories of male and female Gender: more social constructions of masculinity and femininity (rooted in biological difference but society dictates how we should think, feel, and act according to masculinity and femininity) Bipolar assumption: the idea that an individual has characteristics associated with either males or females, but NOT both Psychological essentialism : biological sex differences determine our (immutable) psychological gender differences Cultural approach o Socialization of gender: the learning of masculine and feminine identities from cultural beliefs o Social learning theory: the idea that we learn behaviors from seeing similar others actions (observational learning) o Gender schemas: knowledge structures that guide perceptions; we start to see the world through the lens of gender roles Evolutionary approach: uses the ideas from Darwins theory to explain gender differences that gender roles evolved out of inherent sex differences Social structural approach: gender differences arise from differences in groups social positions (roles and occupations of group members and their respective statuspower) social causes
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