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PSY331H1 (3)

First Half Study Notes

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Alison Luby

Emotions Study NotesFunctions social groups relationship priorities relationship to environment signals states to others Moods last for a long time and are not attached to specific cause more diffuse Emotions reactions to an external stimulus specific eventRequire cognitive appraisalNormal nonpathological transient statesInternal phenomena that can make themselves observable through expression and behaviourAccessible and able to articulate how people are feelingPhysiological reactions and feedback from peripheral nervous system Does not require consciousness test heart rate muscle movement etcCollection of cognitive evaluation and labeling processesSelf reports of evaluation attribution and judgment Component process emotions as episodic relatively shortterm biologicallybased patterns of perception experience physiology action and communication that occur in response to specific physical and social challengesSubjective feelings expressive motor behaviour cognitive appraisal physiological arousal action readySocial norms can dictate expression of certain emotionsSome bold researchers say emotions are more like prototypes disgust surprise etc dont countTheories testable statements about the causes processes order and interaction of emotionsEvolutionary emotions as biologically based providing adaptive advantage ie procreationEventFeelingBehaviourDarwin emotions aid in solving environmental problems through activating adaptive bodily responseHumans and animals exhibit similar emotional reactionsAid in communication within the speciesCritique some emotions can be disruptive ie panicWe cant define these recognizableadaptive problems too broadDoesnt account for what causes the emotion to occur only accounts for stimuliPeople dont always react the same way to similar situationsCognitive Appraisal link emotions to immediate cognitive processes of evaluation of meaning causal attribution and assessment of coping capabilitiesAppraisals psychological representations of emotional significance JamesLange Theory emotions are labels for bodily reactions to certain situations EventAppraisalBehaviourFeelingCognitive interpretation of the stimulus matters in determining emotional significance of stimuliCannonBard Theory emotional cognitions are causally independent of physiological arousalEventAppraisalFeelingsPhysiological ChangeBehaviourSchachterSinger Theory we label our emotions using basic level of physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of the label later found to be a negative defaultArousal determines strength of emotion but does not identify itAssumes all emotions evoke similar physiological responsesExperiment epinephrine or placebo one group was told about arousing effects confederates acted euphoric or angry Placebos reported same ratio of happiness to anger in either condition Not warned of effects confederates affected participants behaviour Warned showed more contrast to confederate behaviour We sometimes become aroused without knowing whyreasonable explanationcognitive labelingemotion cognitive appraisal determines emotion differences not physiologySocial Constructionist different cultures talk about and express emotions in different ways learnedReject biological roots for emotions nativismSocietal goals are responsible for most human statesComponent process with subjective experience expressivepsychological reactions coping responsesNo single response or subset of responses essential to emotional syndrome
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