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PSY341H1 (11)

Required Article Readings on final readings!

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University of Toronto St. George
Hywel Morgan

Conduct Disorder Article ODD- recurrent negativistic, defiant, disobedient and hostile behaviors CD- presence of repetitive and persistent violation of societal norms and other people basic rights. Increased risk in later life for a number of problems including: antisocial behavior, range of psychiatric disorders, educational and work failure, and r/s difficulties Prevalence 5-10% Common in boys than in girls Difficulty in diagnosis due to: 1. No natural cutoff so not useful to know the disorder but rather its extent and vulnerability. 2. Research using behavioral scores for severity and diversity of disorder differ from those found in DSM 4 and ICD-10 3. Children have other emotional and behavioral difficulties. Conduct disorder usually comorbid with ADD-ADHD and depression. Unsure if it is co-occurrence or comorbidity. Causes: - Heritability via neuropsychological and temperamental processes - Environment – parent practices in families with conduct disorder children are characterized by: hostility and criticism, harsh discipline, lack of consistent rules, low monitoring of children’s behaviours, and marital disagreements. ***Environmental risk is particular to the CD child.  Children with CD are more likely to have:  Lower IQ  Poor verbal skills  Impaired functioning on tests of executive functioning  Low tolerance to frustration  Low threshold for negative emotions  Lack of anxious inhibition in rule breaking  Problems of hyperactivity  Impaired attn. and concentration Mind and mindlessness in CD children: - Violence = mindlessness - Social Cognition- reactive aggression (aggressive behaviour in reaction to provocation) when…. - Self Esteem- - Psychopathy – Life of a Heroin Addict Chapter 4: Mid to late teens commencing heroin use - Serious drug, high stigma relative to other drugs -Administration: injecting or smoking - Powder version can be inhaled like cocaine although not common - Injection – intravenously, 19 years of age is the onset for injectors. - Process must be learned and trained; prepare needle, find vein and inject it into the vein (skill and knowledge required) - landmark in IDU - far more effective - Smoking – traditional route - chasing the dragon is commonly used when smoking it - Transition between routes of heroin administration – transition (move from one route to another) – smoking to injecting. Only one transition – once the transition has occurred person tends to stay with the new route. - Initiating phase- depends on lowest onset age in which use in started ever…late teens to early 20’s posses the greatest risk for heroin use - Journey to when you start using is most important… so first substance use to the time of first heroin use which is determined by upbringing and parenting. - 8 years earlier  cigarette – alcohol – other drugs  progression to heroin - Far too many users their groundwork for use was laid in childhood - Women are less likely
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