PSY370 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY370H1
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John Vervaeke

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PSY370 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE (Post-Midterm) PART 1 INSIGHT Recent Insight & Neuroscience Research October 27 Weisberg comes back and makes a methodological critique, saying insight research has conceptual confusions about: 1. Subjective status of insight problems – how can we determine whether a “problem” actually exists? What is a problem for Trevor may not be a problem for me (the concept isn‟t stable or objective) a. Bowden & Jung-Beeman 2. Homogeneity of CLASS of insight problems: maybe there are hybrid problems, some require search- inference as well as insight processes. If so, our performance on “purebred” insight problems are not generalizable a. Gilhooly & Murphy  how can we determine objectively what constitutes an insight problem? BOWDEN & JUNG-BEEMAN 2003 Aha! Insight experience correlates w/ solution activation in the RH.  told subjects what is MEANT by “insight” & “non-insight” & the associated experiences  subjects given a bunch of non-labeled problems, told to REPORT when they are having an insight experience.  Results: when patients were working on problems that they reported to be associated with insight, they showed a quick hemispheric lateralization to the RH. Across subjects, the same problems were associated with the same reports and the same type of brain activity (lateralization) o Specifically, in the right anterior supramarginal temporal gyrus, EEG showed increased activity almost immediately before solution  Correlates with F.O.W. data! (Metcalfe‟s feeling-of-warmth theory) Their results were consistent & theoretically meaningful The Theoretical Meaningfulness of Hemispheric Lateralization To get a solution to an insight problem, we make a sudden shift to a landscape/gestalty view of the environment (RH), and then a quick shift BACK (LH) - probably verifying our solution. Explanation: When 2 organisms compete, the one that wins is able to pick up on small variations & details & can make smaller changes in his behavior ----- fine-grained & sequential processing ~ occurs in LH Gestalty big-picture processing and response required for NOVELTY & multiple simultaneous constraint problems (such as being attacked by a tiger)~ occurs in RH navon letters (bigH made up of Ss) –  damaged RH will see only sssss  damaged LH will see only H  WE see both – approach a dynamical equilibrium - both seem to be pulling on each other Snyder & Chi THINKING CAP transcranial magnetic stimulation  impose lateralization shifts  improve insight probsolv! ****When somebody can use previous results & theories and CAUSE/ INTERVENE in phenomena, it‟s strong evidence for UNDERSTANDING of a phenomenon**** ** insight problem-solving lateralization reflects a shift in processing STYLE, not content. BOWDEN & JUNG-BEEMAN point out that LANGUAGE PROCESSING shows this shift as well, triggering spikes in RH activation  garden path sentences: the horse raced past the barn fell  metaphor: shifting levels of construal shows that “VERBAL OVERSHADOWING” is a misnomer – the problem isn‟t language in and of itself, it‟s that a specific type of concurrent verbalization causes overshadowing. The STYLE & MANNER OF PROCESSING is what‟s important LANGUAGE THAT OVERSHADOWS: the kind that results in LH routine sequential processing LANGUAGE THAT FACILITATES INSIGHT: the kind that results in shifting levels of construal, triggers spike in RH big-picture activation. Gilhooly & Murphy 2005 Differentiating insight from non-insight problems  if restructuring is necessary ~ it‟s an insight problem  if it‟s not necessary ~ non-insight problem  if it‟s helpful but not necessary ~ hybrid problem A) cluster analysis  look for a positive manifold (things are mutually predictive & highly correlated) in insight problems – assumes that different problems share core processing features o FOUND IT! Insight probs clustered strongly together, non-insight too, but less so. o Empirical results correlate w/ a priori taxonomy for insight vs. non-insight problems o  our intuition of insight probsolv seems to reflect reality B) individual differences methodology  see WHICH abilities are predictive of insight & non-insight problem solving o cognitive flexibility is important for insight (requires attention shifting, inhibition of no- longer relevant info, working memory)  facilitates dynamical processing (LH – RH shifting) TASKS:  figure fluency task – make as many shapes as possible from a dot pattern (requires gestalt  detail switcherooing)  alternative use task - how many things can you use this object for? Weisberg comes back again w/ Fleck … ☆IS THIS IMPORTANT???☆ Trying to pay attention to methodological work on verbal protocols Lotta people have been noticing interference effects, retooling how we use concurrent verbalization REVIEW – re-design their constructions on how to engage in concurrent verbalization Arguing against SCHOOLER‟s thing that concurrent verbalization impairs insight problem solving Facial recognition & verbal overshadowing  see faces, later describing them impairs later recognition OVERVIEW OF CONCURRENT VERBALIZATION RESEARCH Macrae & Lois show that language isn‟t necessary for overshadowing in FACIAL RECOGNITION  see faces  shown something like NAVON LETTERS a) driven to FEATURAL level (LH; sss) b) driven to GESTALT level (RH; H)  facial recognition task o a) featural shows overshadowing o b) gestalt outperforms controls!!  facilitation! Schooler says it ain‟t verbal overshadowing, it‟s a Transfer Inappropriate Processing Shift *** Suggests that we could facilitate probsolv by changing the intervening task***  FINGER 2002  Participants presented with pictures of faces  Participants describe faces aloud  Intermediate task o group a: do maze or listen music (MSC, pattern detection& tracking)  no impairment o group b: do another verbal task  overshadowing  Facial recognition task conclusions: group a‟s second task shifted them BACK to gestalt level Meisner et al. 2001 ☆ More extensive & constrained/demanding verbalization task  more overshadowing (inapprop processing shift) (extensive = asked to elaborate, be more thorough/detailed) Allowed to be loose & associational  used language that doesn‟t trigger LH activation  no overshadow Why? – this requires consistency, making judgements about the coherence of your descriptions – search inference processes!!! CONSTRUAL LEVEL THEORY Altering construal – shifting the SCALE of your attention – seems crucial in problem-solving Abstract Concrete …People can manipulate it in many ways FORSTER & Liberman 2004 Temporal Construal Effects on Abstract and Concrete Thinking: Consequences for Insight and Creative Cognition Temporal Imagination – while solving a problem, either imagine you‟re solving it NOW, or 1 YEAR from now Imagining solution one year from now ENHANCES insight! Something “far” – physically OR temporally – you can‟t “see” details  see abstract big picture  HUNT & CARROLL 2008 Verbal overshadowing effect: how temporal perspective may exacerbate or alleviate the processing shift Almost exact replication of Forster & Liberman, more evidence that altering construal is CRITICAL in insight probsolv. VERVAEKE: suggests that altering construal requires opponent processing: where 2 functions perform opposite & conflicting tasks but are necessarily integrated – like the parasympathetic & sympathetic nervous system – and from this dynamical system, a “design” naturally emerges Featural level:  breaking up inappropriate fixation, allows detail|  overshadowing (autistic symptoms?) Gestalt level:  allows insight, big picture  causes fixation, (schizophrenic symptoms?) ^ complementary set of strengths & weaknesses It would be great design if the brain does opponent processing between the two  dynamical, self- organizing system, probably running on a neural network of pattern tracking & construal - seems likely because attention shifting has to be ORGANIZED, and ISN‟T done DELIBERATELY schiz & autism stuff  theory of salience dysregulation, weak central coherence theory (autism) DEYOUNG, Flanders & Peterson 2008 Cognitive Abilities in Insight Problem Solving: An Individual Differences Model. Trying to figure out the mechanisms of insight problem solving – say it‟s RESTRUCTURING, which requires Notes INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES between various measures  convergent thinking: logic, reasoning, good for well-defined problems  breaking frame: ability to overcome context-induced fixation  divergent thinking: pattern recognition, intuition (like for blurry picture tasks), includes cognitive flexibility each was predictably related to insight probsolv, but only the last two were UNIQUELY predictive – and the only SUBcategory of divergent thinking that was predictive was !!!cognitive flexibility!!! PROBLEM: didn‟t talk much about the machinery of/alternatives to breaking frame. POLYANI - transparency  opacity shift  learning-to-learn (it‟s like if your glasses became opaque – you can SEE the process by which you‟re seeing) learning = noticing a pattern in the world learning-to-learn = noticing a pattern in the learning medium cognitive message to cognitive medium thought experiment on attentional scaling: hit a pen against a brush, to notice the shape of the brush. THEN notice the vibrations of the pen itself  brush dissolves perceptually. ☆ tied to mindfulness!! APTER used same terminology. It‟s also a gestalt  featural shift – noticing things that COMPOSE my noticings Opacity  transparency shift  predictive of INSIGHT! (Probably transopac comes first, though) 2D model of breaking frame: Gestalt  Featural, Transparency  Opacity LH 2D model of making frame? Opacity  Transparency, Featural  Gestalt  RH (result of breaking?) BREAKING + MAKING = ATTENTIONAL SCALING Knoblich & Ohlsson et al 1999 Constraint Relaxation and Chunk Decomposition in Insight Problem Solving Matchstick stuff. Constraint: salience/relevance being projected onto a problem to restrict search space The probability of constraint relaxation is inversely proportional to its scope: measure of hierarchy of constraint higher order constraint  more accommodation required  less chance of relaxing constraint. More assimilatory the change/lower order  less reconfiguring (of mental set) required  easier to relax constraints Piagetian assimilation: incorporate new information to your structure vs. accommodation: change your structure to fit in new information. Chunk: pattern of co-relevance among data. No explanation of how we do it. Probability of chunk decomposition is inversely proportional with its tightness (degree to which you can‟t break it up – relative to level of constraint??) CIRCULAR DEFINITION!! KERSHAW & OHLSON 2004 Multiple Causes of Difficulty in Insight: 9-Dot Problem Constraint Factors  perceptual figural integrity etc… -- pattern factors is a better term  processing formulation factors  knowledge transfer factors All tightly interdependent & mutually reinforcing Experiment: noted that facilitation effects in research were small, so they removed a varied # of difficulties in 9-dot problem The more CONSTRAINT FACTORS are addressed, the more solution of insight problems are FACILITATED but not completely. All factors reinforce each other, so giving 3 individual pieces of info doesn‟t necessarily allow you to coordinate them into a useful whole – individual skills ≠ expertise  “DYNAMICAL SYSTEM OF CONSTRAINTS” requires a system of procedures, a meta-skill, in addition BOWDEN et al 2005 New approaches to demystifying insight. ☆☆☆☆☆☆ Recent Insight Theories Nov 3 NEURAL NETWORK THEORY HOW THEY LEARN: input  � output  take output value, compare to target value (correct response)  error value  change connections between nodes a wee bit (BACK PROPAGATION OF ERROR) Unsupervised Version: building target values into the brain – Evolutionary Module – coarse, general, around for a LONG TIME, necessary but not suffictient  Internalization: a & b boxes Phase 1: projection problem Phase 2: i) A stands IN for world, B improves its skill at solving projection problem (learning to learn) ii) B meta-models, A models, B supervises modeling technique Geoffrey Hinton says there are many stages. Calls 1 Wake, 2 Sleep/Dreaming In reality there‟s prolly hierarchical convergence, it ain‟t just linear or 2 things. MANY As (WM, vision, somatosensory stuff, etc…, sharing the same metamodellers)  B can recognize similarities (things that CONVERGE) between As in a highly abstract procedural way  mapping abstract procedural problems from one procedure loop to another … = INSIGHT!!! Vandervert et al 2007 How Working Memory & Cerebellum Collaborate to Produce Creativity & Innovation Evidence in brain for this typa mapping! Parts of cortex & cerebellum. Cerebellum = B-A rel.ship center Numbers allow convergent internalization- we can hear, touch, feel, see “three/3/ | | |” SYNAESTHESIA: mapping things onto completely different modalities Ramachandran Buba & Kiki – naming shapes is totally making sense. Buba looks bloopy and Kiki looks sharp and spiky Liu & Kennedy 1993: SQUARE & CIRCLE w/ QUALITIES People had a ginormous pattern of agreement that circle was assoc w/ soft happy mother bright alive summer while square was assoc w/ hard sad father dark dead winter DID NOT TRANSFER TO METAPHOR DEBARTOLO et al 2009 Cerebellar involvement in cognitive flexibility Cerebellum impairment decreases learning-to-learn in lesioned rats, but NOT learning! Other cerebellum research:  cross-modular transfer affords internal models, & switching thereof, having to do w. HIGHER-ORDER functions like mindsight  transfer in learning & learning to learn The cerebellum does INTERNALIZATION & COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY. But not exclusively - Hippocampus maybe also internalizes. th November 10 Murry & Byrne - ATTENTION & INSIGHT ability to SHIFT ATTENTION is predictive of insight Selective attention ALONE isn‟t, ability to FIX attention isn‟t Synesthesia + + creativity, machinery that explains insight explains synesthesia MONTAGUE a neuroscientist Computer – runs hot & fast (uses up LOTS of energy real rapidly) People – run warm & slow (never get direct feed of power – food) batteries could kill you/you could be somebody else‟s battery. You have to worry about logistics as well as logic  humans pursue efficiency PROBLEM: we have 2 opposing goals – - coordination & organization (requires LOTS of cross-talk in the brain) - fewest connections possible (wire is metabolically costly – gotta REDUCE cross-talk)  MUTUAL MODELLING: things form internal models of each other, consult it  highly coordinate behavior. Update models by periodically communicating. Montague says parts of our brain do this cross-talk: modules consulting each others‟ models RIMM- recursive internalized mutual modeling: self-organizing systems, unlike mathem. knowledge SELF-ORGANIZATION OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS Recursive, FEEDBACK – the output of the system can be fed back  input. How order arises – interaction between individual members of a system an alternative explanation to randomness & intelligent design DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS THEORY: Interaction: relation between events that CHANGES ACTUALITY ex: you push a chair Conditions: constraints that ALTER POSSIBILITY ex: there‟s no obstacle in front of it Evolution: morphology (genetics etc)  behav.  INTERACTION W/ENVIRONMENT & environment  shapes conditions (in environment)   natural selection  MORPHOLOGY AGAIN causal interactions of component parts  overall component structure  sets conditions/constraints for how parts can interact STEPHEN & DIXON 2009 The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving About dynamical systems-theory Component-dominant = top-down processing Interactional dominant = bottom-up processing Phase Transition: one structure quickly reorganizing into a different form after criticality STEPHEN & DIXON 2009 PHASE TRANSITION: Experiment: given pictures of buncha interlocking gears in different configurations, hafta figure out what will happen at Z if you move A in a certain direction a) force tracing: trace the “force” through the gears like in a line (not transferable) b) alternation: even # of gears – clockwise, odd # - counter-clockwise – (transferable) 1) system of mutually interacting & constraining parts within a whole 2) entropy overwhelms the system‟s constraints (input to system can‟t be processed stably by the system) 3) critical instability  change  affords NEW STRUCTURE (opposite of entropy) 4) return to 1), with a new, more COMPLEX system, that can handle the amount of entropy that previously overwhelmed it ☆ this is what happens when we do breaking & making frame!! Experiment 2: “noise” added (distracting irrelevant info ~ entropy) Adding some entropy increases peoples‟ ability to solve insight problems (works w/ returning act hypothesis) Making frame: ability to incorporate higher-order relations that were originally noise to the system Lower-level: short, detailed, local relations High-level: globaller. Right before insight solution, there‟s a massive increase in entropy & disorganization Correlates w/ FOW IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS 1) MULTISTABILITY Pile of sand  loss of success & increase in entropy  broader base  new stable structure ….self-organizing criticality: increase in entropy affords new stability. Constraints relaxed, chunks decomposed 2) COMPLEXIFICATION Cause complex things have EMERGENT functions ...Due to alternations of integration & differentiation between parts… works ok w/ sand, better w. EVOLUTION the brain is a machine that can improve itself local timescale: micro-event (grains of sand bumping) developmental: big-picture happenings (pile) SCHILLING 2005 A “Small-World” Network Model of Cognitive Insight Network Theory, not neural Small world networks: regular (equidistal connections) network + couple of long-distance connections Small loss of order  huge increase in speed of moving between points - lower path length What if your brains are constantly trying to build these Coefficient of connectivity: how well 2 dots picked at random are connected. High order, mutual predictability. Small world networks = most efficient These networks are deeply connected to SOC (self-organizing criticality of opponent processing between integration & differentiation) & to complexifications. SOC tends to CREATE SMNs YOUR BRAIN ACTUALLY WORKS THIS WAY! SOC  SMN groups of neurons sync together (integrate), avalanche,  asynchronous (differentiate)  resync (opponent processing) This maps on to making & breaking frame. We can correlate sync/async variations w/ ability to solve problems…. & predict GENERAL INTELLIGENCE STANKAR et al. 2006 Individual differences in ability to sync & maybe desync predict variance in G THATCHER et al. 2009 avalanche (☆in what capacity??) & then come back has HIGH correlation w/ individual differences in general intelligence Ability to break & make frame is indicative of variance within general intelligence Flexibility is also correlated with this Specified idea of reconstrual from Gestaltists can be found in so much science Insight: dynamical system  reconstrual  opponent processing NOT COMPUTATIONAL We have passed the action/perception distinction  ENACTION Mindfulness, Intuition, Creativity & Flow Nov 17 Reason: alteration of belief through inference ☆CREATIVITY☆ grandfather definition: human capacity for analogy allows fruitful transfer from previous situations DEIRDICH GENTNER: “STRUCTURE MAPPING THEORY” Problem? “structure” = about content, propositional, but analogy is PROCEDURAL Looks @ the solar system model of the atom – it‟s WRONG (nucleus & orbiting stuff) misses quantum mechanics … but it‟s good scientific creativity – analogous to orbiting of planets & sun - not completely the same - only SOME of the propositional content is transferred Predicates:  attribute – takes 1 instantiation ex: “large (x)”  relation – takes 2 or more ex: “collide (x,y)” - first-order: take OBJECTS as instantiation - second-order: take PREDICATES as instantiation. Ex: CAUSE [collide(truck, car), strike(woman)]  Hierarchy of Constraints on Transfer for Analogy 1) prefer RELATIONS to ndtributes 2) in relations, go for 2 -order predicates first so, for the orbiting metaphor, it‟s EQ[Attraction (x, y), Orbiting (y, x)] this sums up the “important” parts of solar system AND atom… higher order structure of relations SYSTEMATICITY: property of organization such that the more the above can be done, the more stuff is similar Self-complexifying systems seek this out Grabbing hierarchy of the structural relations of one system and applying this hierarchy to another system Systematicity + + Complexification (simultaneously integrating and differentiation) PROBLEMS 1) ATTRIBUTES & RELATIONS ARE ILL-DEFINED – logic doesn‟t distinguish between the two. Similar to GPS problem. Plus logic doesn‟t distinguish between the two  combsplosh of # ways to represent information. Doesn‟t address how we formulate problem Gentner replies Interested in how things are psychologically represented, not logical, Suggests exhaustive algorithmic search – Looks like a computational theory of insight problem-solving 3) What‟s the proper level of specificity? Problem of level of construal 4) Insight machinery ++ analogy machinery 5) chicken & egg problem: you need to structure the unstructured data before even searching for the structure – like T/-\E C/-\T Analogy can‟t explain insight because it fundamentally presupposes insight JOHNSON-LAIRD: little transfer is driven by pure structure. Humans aren‟t good at reasoning w/ structure IS CREATIVITY DIFFERENT FROM INSIGHT? BOWDEN 1990 says NO!!! creativity == insight Creative: solve a problem you haven‟t been able to before Maybe creativity‟s goal = problem FINDING (&play) , insight‟s goal is problem SOLVING (work) Henle @ creativity symposium 1961 detachment: crucial for creativity construal is important for creativity CRUTCHFIELD 1962 - intrinsic (own sake) vs. extrinsic (goal external to task) motivation Says Extrinsic motivation prevents detachment, because your work becomes transparent Reduces shift towards learning-to-learn AMABILE, 1993 Motivational Synergy: Toward new conceptualizations of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in the workplace Intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity & insight, Extrinsic is DETRIMENTAL CONCEPTUAL CONCERNS:  hard to distinguish types of motivation ppl have. Ex: achievement  some forms of extrinsic motivation can improve creativity  COLLINS & AMABILE 1999 looked at which features of extrinsic motivation were detrimental to creativity - dividing attention between current task & future goal  decreased focus STERNBERG & LUBORT Synergistic & Non-Synergistic EXTRINSIC Motivation (talking about flow as synergistic – feeds back & helps creativity, working in concert w/ intrinsic motivation, cause it gets you to look outside the task to a source of feedback on how you‟re doing on the task  FACILITATE (idea of motivational work cycle) suggest task-focusing vs. goal-focusing APTER 1984 Reversal Theory and Personality: A Review THEORY OF META-MOTIVATION Arousal: physiological Motivation: interpretation/framing of arousal (negative/positive valence? Approach vs. avoid) DRIVE REDUCTION THEORY- FREUD: classic model of motivation (false) HEBB’S THEORY OF OPTIMAL AROUSAL (parabolic graph) APTER 1989 pointed out 4 problems with Hebb‟s 1) predicts that relaxing = higher level of arousal than excitement! 2) excitement peaks @ mild-medium, relaxation‟s minimum is mild-medium... 3) anxiety & boredom aren‟t only found at extremes of arousal 4) predicts a sequence. To get to anxiety from boredom, have to be excited first?! Level of arousal ≠ level of Affect  APTER’S ALTERNATIVE: Bistable Model of Arousal multi-stable system – dynamical systems language Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, Paratelic: cognitive play, creativity – excitement/boredom – intrinsic (^ arousal = ^ involvement) Telic: cognitive work, insight – anxious/relaxed – extrinsic (activity for sake of GOAL) (operationalization of “work” & “play”) Takes into account that same levels of arousal can have different hedonic states  different feelings Reconstrual of arousal between meta-motivational modes What‟s the difference between the two? FRAMING!!!!! ☆☆ ASPECT SHIFT ON AROUSAL☆☆  how can we get people to FLIP between telic & paratelic? (restructuring our interpretation of our own levels of arousal) like in roller-coasters! motivation to look for interesting problems - non-specific problem finding: If I can get a certain formulation that‟s MULTI-APT, I can get at solving other problems! The formulation is like a nexus that can be applied to many different problems  cog. complexification!! Differentiate between problems but interconnect them with a single problem-finding formula. Cognitive synergy: note
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