PSY372H1 Human Memory.docx

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Jennifer Gagnon

PSY372H1 Human Memory: Study Note for Test #2 (SS2105) Lecture 4 (Part I): Non-Declarative Memory Definitions Content: non-declarative / implicit memory Encoding processes: incidental learning Retrieval processes: indirect tests of memory Behavioral manifestation: conditioning / priming / skills Organizations: 3 sub-systems Traditional view of the organization of LTM LTM: (Declarative Memory / Explicit) [Episodic/Semantic] / (Non-Declarative Memory / Implicit) [Procedural {Basal Ganglia} /Priming {Neurocortex} / Classical Conditioning {Amygdala/Cerebellum}] - Non-declarative memory: changes in the behavior, rather than remembering the exact information; - Any form of memory that doesn’t require conscious access; awareness is not needed; - Tulving “anoetic level of consciousness”; - Incidental learning: learning without consciousness; - Indirect tests of memory: learning without consciousness, and also not asked to think back to previous learning (measures the response time) Three broad categories of Non-declarative memory 1. Classical Conditioning CS to CR: simplest form of memory; conditioned = learned = memory - No memory representation; stimulus triggers response (often reflexive); steak-salivation; - Stimulus-Response associations: the stimulus is directly associated with the response - Stimulus-Stimulus associations: the CS is directly associated with memory representations of the US; acquired through contiguity learning (time) OR contingency learning (cause and effect inference) - Latent Inhibition: repeatedly presenting the CS alone before forming its associations with the US impairs the capacity to condition CS - Extinction: If the CS is repeatedly presented without US, production of CS gradually decreases - There are rules in conditioning; probabilities of CS predicting US - Clinical use of Extinction: Fear/phobias; unconscious association between a stimulus and feeling of anxiety; a systematic desensitization: TX goal = Extinction - Addiction as a learned behavior: complex behavior can be conditioned; fear/drug use - Advertising as a form of conditioning: improving the evaluation of product by associating pleasant experience to the product Ex) Stewart et al. and conditioned response to the conditioned toothpaste brand - Backward conditioning: trace; when CS follows US during training, less conditioning occurs - Mere-exposure effect: simply increasing one’s exposure to a novel stimulus will increase its rated pleasantness; Ex) sponsors, proud partners of, friends of 2. Priming: improved performance based on prior exposure, existing representation activated - Implicitly influence the subsequent perception or processing of material caused by presenting it or a related stimulus beforehand - Better/faster if you’ve seen the item before, may not be aware of this; visual/verbal priming occurs - Amnestic patients demonstrate normal susceptibility to priming Ex) explicitly asking a patient to remember results in impaired performance Ex) YouTube video; priming marketing ideas - Implicit memory = multimodal; activated schema = easier to retrieve? - Tulving: priming is independent of recognition for word-fragment completion - Holland: cross-modality; priming is possible - Neural signatures of priming: involves a decrease in neural activity in the part of the brain that is processing the stimulus; recall that for explicit memory, you’ll see an increase during stimulus processing; often occurs in areas of cortex responsible for that type of perceptual processing; extrastraite cortex, primary visual cortex, and primary auditory cortex. - PET blood flow during word-stem completion showed: priming was associated with reduced activity in posterior perceptual areas Ex) extrastraite occipital cortex; this reduction is known as repetition suppression 3. Procedural Memory: knowledge on how to do things Ex) riding a bike, playing the piano - LTM; skill acquisition; dissociation between knowing how and knowing what - No reliance on conscious strategy: Masters’ Choking Study Ex) Masters’ Choking Study: trained participants in golf putting, 50% demanding attentional task Testing: half of each groups tested under a stressful condition Results: learning is somewhat impaired by the concurrent task; those trained with concurrent task were more resistant to stress; concurrent task reduced reliance on explicit putting strategies, which are prone to disruption. Implicit -> Stressed Implicit -> Explicit -> Stressed Control -> Non-Stressed Control - Case of H.M.: proved that there exist different neuro-anatomical network for declarative and non-declarative memory Non-declarative: Implications - Déjà vu; stereotypes: exposure to radically loaded words automatically activated stereotypes students thought they didn’t have; unintentional plagiarism; advertising: mere-exposure effect Lecture 4 (Part II): Semantic Memory Content: Knowledge Encoding processes: repeated experience Retrieval processes: semantic tasks Behavioral manifestation: response time and type Organizations: categories Traditional view of the organization of LTM LTM: (Declarative memory) [Episodic/Sematic] Definition - General knowledge; shared knowledge; episodic vs. semantic: distinction made by Tulving - Both conscious/declarative memory; level of consciousness: noetic; X mental travel. X tied to time/place Tulving revisited: Episodic = Autonoetic; Semantic = Noetic; Procedural = Anoetic Function of Semantic Memory - Facilitates learning and remembering; provides framework for interpreting and organizing events; Allows us to understand current situations and predict the future with higher accuracy Characteristics of Semantic Memory - complex: holds a lot of information; takes a long time to develop - organized: able to retrieve information quickly, organized by meaning (properties of categories, theories of categories, and ordered relations) - Can be explicitly recalled (declarative) - Can automatically and unconsciously influence behavior Ex) Semantic priming Organization of Semantic Memory: examples of semantic networks - Look into Collins and Loftus (1975): Knowledge as a hierarchical tree of connected nodes; SAM - Spreading of Activation Model; when one concept is activated; this activation spreads to related concepts, bringing them closer to awareness Semantic Priming: a behavioral demonstration of organization in semantic memory - lexical decision task: present a prime and assess the impact of the prime on RT for processing the following word; if the reaction time is faster, we interpret this as positive priming; believe to reflect spreading of activation via associations Parallel distributed processing models by McClelland and Rogers (2003) - Processing occurs by activation propagating among simple, neuron-like units - Semantic knowledge is reconstructed from activity spreading along connections between layers of distributed units - Knowledge is learned via continual adaptive weighting of connections through experience - Concepts gradually become more differentiated and specific Evidence supporting this model: Semantic interconnectivity; each item has a number of connections, an item with more connections = more likely to be activated = more likely to be retrieved faster Spreading of activation vs. control - Positive priming: the gain of expecting a stimulus - Negative priming: the cost of disengaging from expectations; unexpected conditions (textbook: 174) Neely : This effect is greater if you give more time to participants; greater effects of expectations requires greater effect of disengaging from expectation - Evidence for controlled processes in semantic memory Organization of Semantic memory: ordered relations - Central feature of semantic memory: it is organized - Ordered relations: suggests a structure in semantic memory 1. Semantic distance effect: further apart 2. Semantic congruity effect: close on same dimension 3. Serial position effect: extremes (First and Last) - Suggests semantic memory captures order relations in the world How is semantic memory organized? Concepts and Categories - Object categories are represented in distributed networks - These network parallel the organization of perceptual, mother, and language processing systems - Knowledge about tools activates regions associated with motion perception and action planning - Knowledge about characteristic object color activates areas associated with color perception How do we use semantic memory? Schemas and Scripts - Based on our knowledge about the world, schemas are formed. - Highly organized generic knowledge structures
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