PSY (Personality Psychology) Final Exam Review Sheet
(1) The final exam is scheduled for Tuesday, April 28 , 2009 at 9:00 AM in the UTSC Gym.
You should bring your photo ID and some #2/HB pencils. No test aids are allowed, which
means that cell phones and other electronic communication devices are specifically prohibited.
(2) Not all of these questions can be answered if you study only the lecture slides. You will need
to be familiar with assigned textbook content, as well as in-class demonstrations, videos, etc.
Please be sure to have consulted each of those sources before requesting additional help.
Cognitive Theories and Personal Construct Psychology
Be familiar with the major concepts of George Kellys Personal Construct Psychology.
o Kelly argued that people make sense of their social environment via hypothesis testing; and in
trying to understand the world, we develop personal constructs that serve as hypotheses
o Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) adheres to the premise of constructive alternativism
What metaphor did Kelly use to describe the role and actions of the social perceiver? (Person as SCIENTIST)
What is constructive alternativism? Give a real-world example of this philosophical position.
o assumption that any one event is open to a variety of interpretations
example: a kid late for class maybe he slept in, missed the bus or doesnt like school
What is the purpose of the REP test? How does it work?
o REP test permits a person to reveal his/her constructs by comparing and contrasting a number of different
persons in their life
o it works by asking for a list of 30 names of ppl they know and it compares and contrasts 3 of them in a
row by the construct
Be familiar with modern research on Kellys PCP, including criticisms of it.
o Kellys PCP is still popular for clinical and workplace applications
o Fixed-role therapy: involves active identification and assumption of different cognitive
o Overestimating the rationality of construct use among people
Implicates the choice corollary
o Are all constructs dichotomized?
o How does cognitive complexity develop across the lifespan?
Be familiar with the basics of Albert Ellisrational-emotive-behavioral therapy.
o Involves identifying harmful/limiting beliefs, disputing them, and replacing them with new
beliefs that lead to better outcomes
What is field dependence? Give examples. How is it apparently influenced by cultural context? What methods
have been used to assess individual levels of field dependence?
o Field dependencereflects degree of attention paid to context during encoding of focal information
o Field-independent people focus on stimulus to exclusion of context, and often rely on internal
states in making judgments
o More field-dependent were better able to remember stimuli when they were presented in their
original context. Whereas, people who were field-independent were not influenced by context
o Methods used to assess field dependence: Rod and Frame test, Framed-Line Task
o Cultural differences? Framed-Line Task research: Americans vs Japanese found the
Americans were more field independent
1 What is the need for cognition? In what sense is this construct misleadingly named?
o Need for cognition is est thought of as enjoyment of cognition (Some people really like to
think and deliberate about things, others dont)
o It is misleading b/c it is not the same thing as intelligence! (People that are high in need for
cognition tend to do better on intelligence tests, but its not equivalent to intelligence.) [So, need
for cognition is not intelligence, but it could be one component of it]
How is information processing style/speed relate to personality traits?
o People high in need for cognition, tend to do more planning of their behavior in advance. People
low in need for cognition, tend to be more spontaneous.
o People higher in need for cognition, tend to be more concerned with correcting any errors in
judgment caused by bias
o People low in need for cognition, look more at peripheral cues (humor or attractive people,)
when watching commercials
o Higher need for cognition people look at arguments and quality of arguments being made.
What do we mean by attributional style? Give examples of potential individual differences in attributional style
(e.g., complexity, locus, etc.). *****How does attribution relate to the experience of depression? In what
sense can the terms optimism and pessimism be linked to attribution patterns????????????*******
o Attribution style refers to how people vary in the attributions that they make for events. Or the
explanations they make for things that happen, and this relates to a number of outcomes
o Potential differences: Locus (internal vs. external), Stability (temporary vs. chronic), Globality
(local vs. widespread)
Humanistic Theories and Positive Psychology
What common ideas unite the humanistic theories of personality?
o Third force in psychology (Maslow)
o Derives from phenomenological philosophy
Emphasizes study of consciousness as experienced from first-person perspective
What is self-actualization? What are the characteristics of self-actualized people? According to Abraham
Maslow, what proportion of the population is likely to attain a self-actualized state? What theoretical and
empirical concerns exist with respect to this concept?
o Self-actualization refers to the desire to fulfill ones highest potential
o Maslows definition of self-actualization: becoming more and more what one idiosyncratically is,
to become everything that one is capable of becoming
o In order to achieve this, self-actualized people must have their lower needs been sufficiently met so that
they do not detract from or engross a persons basic energies
o Less than 1% of entire population have achieved self-actualization
o Concerns: large portion of the worlds population cannot achieve this b/c in the conditions they live in,
they probably cannot even achieve the basic needs
What is a peak experience? How does self-actualization relate to Mihalyi Cziksentmihalyis concept of flow?
o Peak experience: you feel lost in the moment (not watching tv, this is just you being distracted),
time dilates, a feeling that you are fully engaged in the experience, this is all you want or need to
o Czikszentmihalyis concept of flow in task performance is related to this idea (a state of oneness
with the situation and activity at hand)
Clear goal, balance between personal skills and task demands, immediate performance
Be familiar with Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, including its later revision (discussed in lecture) and the
consequences of unfulfilled needs.
o Physiological, Safety, Love & Belonging, Self-Esteem, Self-Actualization + Cognitive, Aesthetic Needs
2o more negative reactions to unfulfilled lower needs, but more positive reactions to fulfilled
Which levels of this hierarchy reflect belonging needs (B-needs) and which reflect deficiency needs (D-needs)?
o Deficiency Needs: Physiological, Safety, Love & Belonging, Self-Esteem
o Being/Growth Needs: Self-Actualization
Be familiar with the general idea of Maslows B-values.
o Arise out of the organisms drive to self-actualize and fulfill its inherent potential
o They dont stem from a lock or deficiency; rather, they push forward to self-fulfillment
According to Carl Rogers, what is the phenomenal field? How does it relate to our self?
o phenomenal field: the sum total of the experiences that a person has and is currently having
o out of this field there is some info that is more closely associated with our concept of I or me
or self and this is what becomes known as the self concept
What is the difference between conditional and unconditional positive regard? Which of these would Rogers
recommend for parents, teachers, and therapists to provide to their charges?
o Unconditional positive regard refers to being loved and accepted unconditionally for who one is
o Conditional positive regard is positive regard given only under certain circumstances
o Rogers would recommend Unconditional Positive Regard
What are the characteristics of the fully functioning person, according to Carl Rogers? How is this state attained?
o Fully functioning person: openness to experience, existential living, organismic trust, experiential