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Review Test 4 Terms.docx

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Eleanor Pontoriero

household can live a decent material life and have spare time to learn and practices virtue in their dealings with family members and neighbors. - (1929 –2007)  Determining the support for the people depends on what the ruler sees as - full title Samdech Preah Maha Ghosananda sufficient for the people, for the care of parents, wives and children, to ensure - Maha Ghosananda is a Cambodian Buddhist monk. - A monk in the Theravada tradition, who served during the Khmer that there will be sufficient food that will provide for everyone for the years to come. Rouge period and post-communist transition period of Cambodian history. - His name means "great joyful proclaimer". - He was well known in Cambodia for his annual peace marches. - He led many monks, nuns and laity on a month long “peace march” from Siam Reap to Phnom Penh.  Response to Asian value you debate  They are contemporary Buddhist who are social and political activists.  Responsible for deeply incorporating the language of human rights into their campaign to bring about fundamental political change in their home country Dhamamyietra, is the peace march lead by Maha Ghosananda . - This march is defined as the“Pilgrimage of Truth.”  Buddhist intellectuals debate about to what extent the concept of human rights - It was held for the sake of the United Nations-sponsored elections of new is compatible with Buddhist culture national assembly and government.  Buddhist activists continue to rely heavily upon the language of human rights - The hope was to make popular confidence in the elections and overcome the as an integral part their work. fear that had been aroused by Khmer Rouge threats of violence and disruption. - The result of the peace march was a success and led to many thousands of Cambodians to vote in ensuing free and fair elections.  A relationship in which everyone is mutually dependent on each other.  Concept talked about in engaged Buddhism. They stress interdependence, compassion, and human membership in the larger category of sentient beings, Social activism is the incorporation of personal aspects of self with other skills to arrive at peace and understanding with people. It contains aspects of personal and advocate strongly for the environment and species. transformation and peacemaking. An exemplary figure that was able to integrate  Humanity is interdependent, as well as species in an ecosystem. these aspects into social activism is Ghosananda. Through his radiant, peaceful,  Interdependence depends on peace and sustainability. gentle behaviour and the ability to use his Zen techniques to answer quizzical questions, he is able to enlighten the people around him. He is a standing example of peace and because of that people respect him for more than what he said or have done in life, but for who he is. Part of understanding his work and teachings are to understand his character which plays an important role to activism. The Khmer Rouge was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea in Cambodia. It was formed in 1968 as an offshoot of the Vietnam  Based on Mencius influential idea of a “well-field system” People's Army from North Vietnam. It was theruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, and Khieu Samphan.  Articulates what we may call today the sufficiency principles of social justice  Social justice holds that the government has a responsibility to provide for each Democratic Kampuchea was the name of the state as controlled by the government household a certain amount of land to own and plough so that members of that of the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979. The organization is remembered especially for orchestrating the Cambodian  Is the understanding and empathy for the suffering of others  A fundamental part of human love for others Genocide, which resulted from the enforcement of its social engineering policies. Its attempts at agricultural reform led to widespread famine, while its insistence on  Social connection with others around you and is connected with humanism  Connected with Golden Rule, which world religions believe in: do onto others what absolute self-sufficiency, even in the supply of medicine, led to the deaths of you would have them do to you thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. Arbitrary executions and torture  In Hinduism it is referred to as daya: one of the three virtues in Hinduism carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during purges of  In Judaism: God is the compassionate figure, importance of Golden rule its own ranks between 1975 and 1978, are considered to have constituted genocide.  In Buddhism: compassion is significant towards the 4 Noble Truths By 1979, the Khmer Rouge had fled the country, while the People's Republic of  In Christianity: God is the center of compassion, importance of relational care  In Islam: zakat: a toll tax to help the poor and needy (example of compassion) Kampuchea was being established.The governments-in-exile (including the Khmer Rouge) still had a seat in the UN at this point but it was later taken away, in 1993,  Compassion by definition is a feeling of deep sympathy and sorrow for another who is stricken by misfortune, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate the as the monarchy was restored and the country underwent a name change to the suffering.  Morality essentially stems from compassion. Kingdom of Cambodia. In 1975 when the communist Khmer Rouge took control of Cambodia, they tried to Wisdom is the theory and application of knowledge. It is a deep understanding and completely destroy Buddhism and very nearly succeeded. By the time of the realization of people, things, events or situations, resulting in the ability to apply perceptions, judgments and actions in keeping with this understanding. It often Vietnamese invasion in 1979, nearly every monk and religious intellectual had been either murdered or driven into exile, and nearly every temple and Buddhist temple requires control of one's emotional reactions so that universal principles, reason and knowledge prevail to determine one's actions. and library had been destroyed. To be wise means to help eradicate violence against others so that there are no The Khmer Rouge policies towards Buddhism- which included the forcible human rights violations. disrobing of monks, the destruction of monasteries, and, ultimately, the execution of uncooperative monks effectively destroyed Cambodia's Buddhist institutions.Monks who did not flee and avoided execution lived among the laity, - Created by Monk Maha Ghosananda in the aftermath of the Cambodian sometimes secretly performing Buddhist rituals for the sick or afflicted. genocide. Estimates vary regarding the number of monks in Cambodia prior to the ascension - emerged from ten year forest meditation retreat to help Cambodian survivors, of the Khmer Rouge, ranging between 65,000 and 80,000 By the time of the rebuild community and Cambodian Buddhism, teaching peace through Buddhist restoration in the early 1980s, the number of Cambodian monks example. - Buddhist ethics (include generosity & concern for peoples‟ welfare; non- worldwide was estimated to be less than 3,000. The patriarchs of both Cambodian corruption; duty & self-sacrifice for the well-being of all people; integrity; nikayas perished sometime during the period 1975-78, though the cause of their truthfulness and sincerity; kindness and compassion for others‟ suffering; deaths is not known. austerity, i.e., simple living; spiritual discipline & self-control; non-anger and non-violence; forbearance and patience and non-opposition to the people) Due to their association with the Thai monarchy, monks of the Thommayut order may have been particularly targeted for persecution - Buddhist ethics is a commitment to inner peace through self-transformation is catalyst for social peace, - internal transformation is a form of social ethics & intrinsic relation between social action and dharma practice - „an army of peace‟ was created and use of courage and „bullets of lovingkindness for ammunition‟ in the struggle for peace and reconciliation ( From the web: Vipassanā is commonly used as a synonym for vipassanā- began annual month long peace walks (Dhammayietra) w/ monastics and lay meditation, in which anapanasati, mindfulness of breathing, is used to become persons in refugee camps on Thai border and through conflict zones in aware of the impermanence of everything that exists. Cambodia, offering refuge and protection from fear, healing of trauma, compassion and presence of peace - emphasized rigourous meditation and ethical training - Buddhist ethics guiding peacework include inter-dependence, non-violence, - Also known as peace of mind non-attachment, generosity; and gradual eradication of anger, hatred and - Refers to a state of being mentally and spiritually at peace. ignorance - Being at peace is considered by many as the opposite of anxious and stressed, and to have inner peace is to be associate with bliss, happiness and contentment. - In contemporary time, Dalai Lama is being seen as one of the most significant and prominent figures. FROM: Socially Engaged Buddhist Ethics of Maha Ghosananda in the Aftermath - In one of his interviews, Dalai Lama has a clear distinction between inner peace of Cambodian Genocide- Weiner and materialistic life. He argues that the materialistic life increases anxiety, and is Maha Ghosananda was elected as Supreme Patriarch, and led a contingent of problematic for the self to achieve inner peace. monks to the UN-sponsored peace talks between four warring Cambodian - "The question of real, lasting world peace concerns human beings, so basic human feelings are also at its roots. Through inner peace, genuine world peace can be factions. It was here that he asserted that there was a fifth force that he called an “army of peace” made up of monks and other peacemakers. They would use achieved. In this the importance of individual responsibility is quite clear; an “courage” and “bullets of loving kindness(metta) for ammunition” in its atmosphere of peace must first be created within ourselves, then gradually struggle for reconciliation. After this his decade long peace advocacy expanded to include our families, our communities, and ultimately the whole culminated. planet. Complimentrary methods like metta(loving kindness) , Samadhi(concentration), and vipassana (insight/wisdom) were used by Maha for the purpose of internal peacemaking and effective nonviolent action, and are inherently understood as ethical activity that leads to social - Social peace in a nutshell can be described as the social law harmony. - It is the law of each society that delineates what is acceptable and unacceptable. FROM the web: It is one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravada school of Buddhism, and the first of the four sublime states (Brahmavihāras). This is - Without law, chaos would reign in the society; and if chaos reigns in society, love without clinging (upādāna). we will have little time to self- and achieve inner peace The cultivation of loving-kindness (mettā bhāvanā) is a popular form of - Therefore, social peace and inner peace are two sides of one coin. Both are dependent on each other and both manifest each other meditation in Buddhism - Inner peace may drive social peace. - The core of inner peace resides in the recognition that we are one with each other and one with God, and that we do to anyone reverberates throughout all of humanity FROM: Socially Engaged Buddhist Ethics of Maha Ghosananda in the Aftermath of Cambodian Genocide- Weiner - When we treat each other as equals, we write laws that are equitable and just. -Complimentrary methods like metta, Samadhi(concentration), and vipassana (insight/wisdom) were used by Maha Gosananda during his peacemaking efforts for the four warring Cambodian factions, for the purpose of internal peacemaking and effective nonviolent action, and are inherently understood as  Defined as the killing of members of a group causing serious mentally or bodily harm, deliberately inflicting conditions of life calculated to result in ethical activity that leads to social harmony. the physical destruction of the group, actions to prevent births within certain groups, and the transfer of children out of the group.  “Convention on the Prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide” action, based on the understanding that there is a unity between the ends and the is made, which made it an offence to undertake actions with the intent to means. It was Gandhi who first discussed this unity and applied these principles destroy in whole or part of a national ethnic group, racial group, or during the Indian independence movement. His method of political engagement has linguistic gone on to inspire countless others.  Sadly, the UN just recently invoked this convention against genocide, which caused for criticms against the UN (they may have been reluctant Non-violence refers generally to the notion of abstention from violence because of because of having to deal with the protection of ethnic minorities) moral or religious principle. It is a strategy for social change that rejects the use of  An example: Genocide in Rwanda: The Security Council decided that violence, but at the same time, regards nonviolent action as an alternative to passive months after the killings had started, that genocide had been committed. acceptance of oppression or armed struggle against it. Security Council is allowed to investigate events in Rwanda since 1991 and has the power to prosecute suspects. After several years most war Remaining relevant to the course, the Gustafson handout discusses the aim of non- criminals remain unpunished violence or satyagraha. Essentially, the indivisibility of means and ends follows from the axiom that violence, even where seemingly justified, only leads to more violence. The destructive strategies and war mentality integral to the pursuit of criminal justice only fuel revolt, engender martyrs, and harden resistence. Refers to the roundtable discussion held in 2000 by members of the military, human rights groups, and government leaders to address human rights violations that were If we understand that fear of shame or ridicule is the most common reason human committed during Pinochet‟s regime. At the roundtable discussion, the military handed over a list of names of „disappeared‟ Chileans who they claimed they beings engage in violent behaviour, the advantages of satyagraha over penal threats as a means to elicit right conduct become manifest. dumped in the Pacific Ocean. Since the roundtable discussion, the remains of some of the victims on that list have been excavated and identified on land, confirming for critics of the military and human rights workers, that the military cannot be trusted and has no sincere interest in cooperating. The government of the Concertacion called for a round table on human rights'  The notion that two events influence each other simultaneously. abuses, the so-called mesa de dialogo, incorporating members of the armed forces,  Sociologists apply this cause while they are applying the social learning theory human rights' activist, and representatives of the church, historians and journalists. This initiative has been rejected by many human rights' organizations and lawyers  Much can be learned by watching how people behave and determining the effects of that behavior. who see it as an attempt to distract attention from the Judicial investigations of human rights abuses at the precise moment when these investigations twenty-six Reciprocal causation could be applied to a number of scenarios, including years after the military coup. Finally are beginning to bear fruit. The human rights' occurrences that happen every day. organization CODEPU has roundly criticized the government's initiative, "viewing it as a manuvre aimed at achieving a punta filial with respect to past human rights' abuses, CODEPU finally rejected the attempt to find the political solution to this issue that the army has frequently called for and by which is meant a renewed pact A building of peace that takes into account that there has to be more a simple stoppage in the conflict. All sides must be heard and acknowledged than a guaranteeing impunity, Significant groups and indIviduals have therefore refused to participate In the mesa de dialogo. The government‟s approach appears to favor the culturally appropriate guideline must be put in place to keep in check any causes of kind of elite negotiation that has characterized Chile's transition from the start future conflict so that the belligerents can live in true peace forthwith. “Based not on the absence of conflict but rather development of culturally rather than open debate. Battle.pdf appropriate and effective ways of adjudicating and resolving conflict non-violently. Includes laying down of arms, and long term efforts toward reconciliation, power- sharing & decision-making, and socio-political re-structuring of society from bottom up and shift away from statist diplomacy to restoring and rebuilding o Non-violence is a committed to a principle of non-harming, especially in political community & relationships between groups w/in community as long term ends- oriented strategy like criminal justice, however well-intended, falls short of commitment and goal.” the mark. Transitional justice is the range of approaches that states may use to address past human rights violations and includes both judicial and non-judicial approaches. Any entity that is granted judicial authority for any claim or dispute. A tribunal is They include series of actions or policies and their resulting institutions, which may not necessarily concrete or uniform from subject to subject; a tribunal can be made be enacted at a point of political transition from violence and repression to societal up of any body of person(s). Tribunals mentioned in the readings include: stability. Transitional justice is informed by a society‟s desire to rebuild social trust, “International Criminal Tribunal for Rawanda in Arusha, Tanzania”; “ad hoc repair a fractured justice system, and build a democratic system of governance. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia”; “UN approved core value of transitional justice is the notion of justice: not necessarily criminal tribunal to try select Khmer Rouge Leaders”; “Post WWII Nurembourg justice, but other forms of justice as well. This notion and the political tribunals”; transformation, such as regime change or transition from conflict, are thus linked Rights to a just and lawful tribunal are outlined in: “The Universal Islamic toward a more peaceful, certain and democratic future. Declaration of Human Rights”; Transitional Justice is seen in the development of customary international law regarding human rights- informal processes of recognition by states and their -contrasts with revenge widespread acceptance of ius cogens norms such as prohibitions on slavery, apartheid, genocide and torture. International Criminal Law and its enforcement -some deny everything that has happened in the past, especially if they were began with the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals. International Criminal Courts can wrongful actions, such as The Holocaust. undertake prosecutions when the state ordinarily burdened with such responsibility -In Germany, the expressions that took place during the Holocaust were seen as a criminal offence, which raised problems such as the limits of freedom of expression is unable or unwilling to prosecute -Ignoring the past comes close to denying it -For example, for many years what happened during the civil war in Spain was The Concept of Transitional Justice is presenthin Twiss‟s Article „ Global Ethics widely ignored and Human Rights. Week of September 24 -asserting that an allegation or statement is not true The International Criminal Court; Is governed by the Rome Statute and is the first -the action of afflicting harm or hurt on someone for wrong suffering at their hands permanent treaty based, international criminal court established to help end -to inflict punishment because of an event that may have happened towards the impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the person who originally afflicted hurt international community. It is an independent international organization, and is not -For example, the war in Iraq and Afghanistan occurring as a result of the collapse considered as part of the United Nations system. of the Twin Towers, some believe this is a form of revenge - contrasts with the term denial In respect to relevance to course material, attention should be directed to the handout received in class from Carrie Gustafson-> “Punishing for Peace…” Truth and reconciliation commission – task to discover and reveal past wrongdoing A signal challenge to the ICC enterprise is the core precept of satyagraha that ends by a government –in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past - Often, pre-exist in the means. Transitional societies in particular, an ethically responsible policy is one that reflects a world where unintended consequences are the rule. An there is a public mandate to bring past human rights violators to justice, though in some cases, abuses of human rights have gone unpunished under truth commissions due to threats of antidemocratic coups by the powerful parties who endure in the military. Lederach’s paradigm shift In Canada - The Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission a currently active (as of February 2011) commission investigating human rights -A new model of peace-building invented by John Paul Lederach, important abuses in the Canadian Indian residential school system –holistic and Mennonite and scholar, also can be called the nested paradigm. comprehensive response to the Indian residential school legacy -As opposed to high-level state intervention, Lederach advocates local interventions which empower people in conflict zones. -Lederach sees peace and conflict as on a continuum -- states don't immediately devolve from stability into total chaos, or the reverse. There are Forgiveness is the cessation of resentment or anger caused by a perceived offence, many small "systems", like weather systems, which create conflict. disagreement or mistake. It is to grant free pardon and give up all claim on account -EG, unemployed youth in Somalia are offered material welfare if they align of an offence or debt. The concept and benefits of forgiveness is a notion that has with Islamist groups and do their soldiering. been explored in religious thought, social sciences and medicine. -The solution is to create new systems inside the continuum, with the people Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person who forgives nested in the conflict. including forgiving themselves, in terms of the person forgiven or in terms of the -Maybe in this case you offer workforce training to the youth. You provide relationship between the forgiver and the person forgiven. In most contexts, another way to make money. forgiveness is granted without any expectation of restorative justice, and without -In any case, Lederach's paradigm involves a co-ordination between as many any response on the part of the offender (for example, one may forgive a person levels of society as possible, trying to achieve peace with small, meaningful who is incommunicado or dead). shifts. Most world religions include teachings on the nature of forgiveness, and many of -This is a shift from the paradigm of statist intervention, of military or financial these teachings provide an underlying basis for many varying modern day traditions intervention applied to the state in the hopes of a "trickle-down" effect. and practices of forgiveness. Some religious doctrines or philosophies place greater emphasis on the need for humans to find some sort of divine forgiveness for their own shortcomings, others place greater emphasis on the need for humans to -A pejorative term for the usual form of international diplomacy. practice forgiveness of one another, yet others make little or no distinction between -In statist diplomacy, you intervene at a high level -- you pressure another human and divine forgiveness. government into enacting new policies. Maybe you impose economic sanctions, or go to war. -Your goal is to change the whole system, to alter the power at the top, in the hopes of achieving some benefit in society. Reconciliation in terms of ethnic relations is restoring mutual respect between -Jean Paul Lederach, among others, claims that this just doesn't work, and offers the individuals from different cultural backgrounds. nested paradigm as an alternative. An example of „reconciliation‟ seen in our course study: Truth and reconciliation commission. The commission‟s task to discover and reveal past wrongdoing by a government –in the hope of resolving conflict left over from the past - Often, there range of activities performed by religious actors and institutions for the purpose of is a public mandate to bring past human rights violators to justice, though in some cases, abuses of human rights have gone unpunished under truth commissions due resolving and transforming deadly conflict, with the goal of building social to threats of antidemocratic coups by the powerful parties who endure in the relations and political institutions characterized by an ethos of tolerance and nonviolence; includes not only conflict management and resolution efforts on the military. In Canada - The Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission ground, but also the efforts of people working at a distance from actual sites of a currently active (as of February 2011) commission investigating human rights deadly conflict conducting research relevant to cross-cultural and inter-religious dialogue in an effort to strengthen traditions of nonviolence; entails conflict abuses in the Canadian Indian residential school system –holistic and transformation - the replacement of violent with nonviolent means of settling comprehensive response to the Indian residential school legacy. disputes, including the enforcement of existing treaties and peace accords and conflict resolution - removing to the extent possible the inequalities between the  Binding two parties on an agreement. disputants, by means of mediation, negotiation, and advocacy on behalf of one or  There have been many bilateral treaties that provide various declarations and more parties in the conflict. treaties involving religious bodies. Examples are the Vatican with Italy and - source: „A Moment of Opportunity: The Promise of Religious Peacebuilding in an Era of Religious and Ethnic Conflict‟ (David Little, Scott Appleby, PB 1) - p. 2/3 Spain with Israel. depends on the existing criminal justice system in each country; focuses on guilt  Intrinsic: belonging naturally and blame and seeks criminal motive, incriminating evidence, an objective measure  Traditional Buddhist sources for the recognition of intrinsic human equality of truth, witnesses of broadly defined integrity, and, preferably, a confession by the include the following: perpetrator; the focus on crime in retributive justice tends to become an industry o The Buddha was willing to teach all those who were listening without and depends on the very issue that sometimes leads to torture, namely, imposing restrictions based upon social class (caste), gender, interrogations that extract a confession. It further separates justice from social education, or any other characteristics. healing in a way that tends to marginalize victims and their continued suffering. The offender and the crime take central stage, while the victim and the pain o He attested the caste system and said they were based on occupation dissolve in the notion that the state takes the case as its own against the offender. and were not real but merely conventional. source: Truth and Reconciliation: The South Africa Case (Russel Botman; PB3) p. o A person‟s place in society should be determined by his or her 4 actions, and not by the class assigned to him in birth. Societies still divided because of past conflict exist in all continents. From Peru or Argentina to Sierra Leone or the Democratic Republic of Congo, from Serbia to Ea  Not being a part of the essential nature of someone or something. st Timor, Sri Lanka or Nepal, issues of justice for yesterday‟s violent oppressors an  Having a perspective from the outside. d war leaders continue to pose dilemmas for today‟s democrats seeking
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