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Final

JAINISM EXAM NOTES.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Religion
Course Code
RLG100Y1
Professor
Walid Saleh

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Jainism:  Jainism has the same six points of Vedic religion o Karma: anything that is “material”  Does not engage in material world because the more one engages the deeper they sink into it and more karma fastens onto their souls  Both good and bad acts create karma  Punya: Good Karma  Paap: bad Karma; inauspicious  By eliminating the inflow of Karma, whether good or bad we are cleansing the soul of all karmic particles that will allow for liberation o Kala: circular cycle,  In every degenerate cycle, 24 Jinas that teach the path of Restraint come, o ahimsa : extremist  Central value thought to be the supreme path  (not just towards living creatures)  radicalism of non-violence  does not hurt anything (i.e. don’t step on ants)  you do not get punished for going against ahimsa, but you obtain bad karma  non-interference = non violence  violent acts increases the negative karma attatched to our souls, obstructing our ability to know our true self o Nirvana: your best trick to nirvana is to be reborn as a human o Moksha : state of complete detatchment from the world (state where you cannot communicate with the same people in the samsara cycle)  Expressly forbidden to cause harm to any living being  Believes that human suffering is real and not an illusion (DIFFERENT THAN BUDDHIST AND HINDU)  Good intentions are never enough, actions always have reasons or consequences  They must travel the path of renunciation- and Salekhana is only a logical end  Believe that the cycles of generation and degeneration produce predictable patterns in social, moral and physical life o As a result, within each cycle there are period that favor the emergence of Jinas who teach the path of liberation  Teaches: the path of happiness, truth and self-realization comes through restraint o Disengaging from the world in every way: family, community, and body o Path of renunciation is the path of a transformative power - Cultivating our personality comes at the expense of knowing our true self The Self: - The Self has nothing to do with this world - The self is washed away with each wave of samsara - It is the fundamental “other” FOUNDER: MahaVira (The Great Hero)  6th century BCE  Born into a ruling family, in Nepal – o What is known about his life comes from Jaina texts and parts of the Buddhist Pali Canon  Enlightment: he saw all conditions of the world o Was able to see what human beings thought, spoke or did at any moment  Age 72: Death: believed to be liberated from all his pains o Left his body and attained Moksha - He established Jainism as a four-fold community made up of monks, nuns, laymen and laywomen  Believed to be the final; Jina of the current degenerate time period  does not care about gods (instead, the gods worship the Jinas)  24 individuals (Jina conquerors) managed to obtain Nirvana during descending  Vegans: do not eat meat or “life products” because they do not believe in killing  there is no law  Jainism and Buddhism, from the very beginning, instituted two divisions: [Valays] and monks  200 years later, it divided into two sects: the naked monks and the white monks (not naked)  goal of Jainism: complete perfection (most importantly, purification) of the soul  theory of Jainism: any action ultimately gets attached to your soul, thus you need to be released from action to purify yourself (total and complete detachment)  goal of Jainism: get the Jiva out of the “samsaric cycle jinas: “victors” or conquerors” - twenty four acetic-prophets that thought the path of eternal happiness - highest expression of the Jaina ideal - conquers the world by turning his back on it Jiva:  Eternal soul  a soul that every human and every entity has  three essential characteristics: o consciousness (self knowledge) o bliss o energy  it is formless and genderless  it is luminous, peaceful  cannot be perceived by the senses - it is an immaterial substance that can only be seen in the mind  goal of Jainism: get the Jiva out of the “samsaric cycle”  Kevala = complete knowledge (omniscience) o is necessary to become free of the karma cycle, thus you need direct experience of your soul (in it’s pure form)  samyak Darshan : momentary awkening when the conscious self catches a glimpse of the soul o “Right faith o starting point of Jainism o calls for restraint and self-discipline  You get this knowledge through a system of yoga (disciplinary exercise of the monks)  yoga is divided into two systems: renunciation (aesthetic) and meditation Ajiva:  soul without consciousness  neutral to the Jiva, it is its friend and foe  consists of five types: 1. pugdala- pure matter  touch, taste, smell and color  all worldly knowledge is acquired by pugdala 2. kala- time 3. dharma- principle of motion 4. adharma- principle of rest 5. akash- space  problem between Jiva and aJiva is that they are enmeshed, preventing the soul from achieving a state of Bliss Ethical system:  the 3 jewels (ratnatraya) of the ethical system in Jainism: 1. right knowledge 2. right faith 3. right conduct  abstain from stealing  content with one’s wife  limit one’s possessions Jainism is not an independent religion. An eternal self - Jina.
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