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Final Exam Terms.docx

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David Perley

Judaism: Pentateuch: - Hebrew scripture is divided into three components with Pentateuch being the first - It is one of the three components of the Hebrew Bible - The first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Torah) ascribed to Moses; Exodus, Genesis, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy - Modern scholars regard Pentateuch as the product of later literary activity - Religious people believe it to be the most important because it was revealed to Moses Ghemera: - the second major text created after the Mishnah - Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah - Jews believed that revelation was closed, but interpretation was open - Ghemera and Mishnah together make up the Thalmud (Jerusalem thalmud and Babylonian thalmud) - provides further understanding of the Mishnah book Tefillin: - Small black leather boxes also called phylacteries - Contains words of from torah tied to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs - Worn by jews during weekday morning prayers - Torah commands people to wear it as a sign of remembrance that God brought the Children of Israel out of Egypt Minya: - Refers to the quorum of 10 Jewish male adults required to perform a prayer service in the synagogue - Most common activity requiring a Minya is a public prayer - Anyone less than the age of 13 is not a Minya because they are not mature enough - If a child is knowledgeable they may be a Minya - Women are included in Minya for certain prayers, and not others BAR MITZVAH , SEDER, SEPTUAGINT Christianity C ANON EUCHARIST FUNDAMENTALISM GLOSSOLALIA N ICENEC REED PURITANISM TRANSUBSTANTIATION Islam: Dhikr: -Dhikr is the remembrance of God - it can be considered as a meditation/prayer - A sufi is an expert in Dhikr - A common form of Dhikr is “there is no God but God” - Sufis continuously remember God through this act of Dhikr (Worship) - When a person remembers God (does Dhikr) he is considered to be alive, and when he doesn’t do Dhikr he is considered to be dead Hadith: - sayings and doings of the prophet (teachings of the prophet) - the hadeeth literature and the practices of the prophet are helped to construct the sunnah (teachings of the prophet) - the shraih (Islamic law) is developed based on the quran, sunnah, and hadeeth literature. - Shia tradition consists of Hadeeth literature by Ali, Hassan, and Hussain Hajj: - An annual pilgrimage to Makkah to visit the house of God - The pilgrimage should be performed at least once by every sane individual - Every individual should try to perform Hajj, but if they are unable to do so due to circumstances than it is okay - Hajj is a form of worship where the believers are forgiven for their past sins, and exchanged for reward Eid Al-Fitr: - festival of purification after fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan - Before the festival begins, followers perform an obligatory prayer to God - Celebrated at the beginning of the new month after Ramadhan (Shawwal) - Festival lasts for three days - Eid is an Arabic term that means “Festivity” Ijma: Imamis: - Shi’is believe there are twelve imams that are legitimate heir to the prophets authority - The last imam is yet to come to this world - Shi’is believe his name is Imam Mahdi and upon his arrival peace will spread around the world Qiblah: - The direction of prayer for all muslims - The direction of prayer points toward the Kaba (holy house of God) - Mosques also point towards this direction of prayer and have a niche in t
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