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Rlg100y1 full year lecture notes

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Walid Saleh

religion * Religion is everywhere... * Europe cease to be of one religion: Catholics and ... slaughtered each other * Truth and false of religion...left with history…attempt to describe religion through historical ways * Talk about religion with rationalism * Religion was seen as an enemy of science * French rev was very anti-religious How do we study a religion? * through anthropology * through sociology (trends,...who goes church, where are people educated.etc) * through phenominology (dutch guy: Gerardus van der leeuw 1933) * religion is above and beyond history, * Religion has a function but there's something more than that (religion qua religion--> describe it from the does a religious person see or feel the religion---> * exam: what is phenomenology? its descripted rather than historical ...attempts to investigate what we can't describe * 4 aspects of phenomenology 1) Suspend beliefs or preconceived ideas: (people fast because others do it you can't rend the religion) intaining of reference of one's belief and reconstructing the religion. ...can't claim religion is functional (lets pray cus im sick.. praying for healing purposes)... don't give function to religion beyond religion... suspension of prejudgment 2) Receiving religion through religion: meaning Catholics speak of sacraments... to understand the sacrament you have to see it from a catholic. What does the sacrament mean to him/her... take within the religious understanding and try to understand what they mean by it (use religion to explain religion) * 3) USING Comparative approach: to see what's essential in religion (eg: all religions seem to have a preoccupational ethic... all religions have ethics--- > can only do this through comparative method 4) Maintaining a proper understanding of a religion: Empathize what you’re studying... to understand what they’re actually studying. Religion is universal. Every society has it... Can’t study religion as believers. Have to step away from it.. be neutral. Have to have empathy towards religion to go to another level of understanding.. dutch guy...almost everything we do is symbolic...religion is the grand master of all existence (biggest symbol of all) * through comparison (will compare to see how one is unique from the other) 5) Through history: ---> normative approach (explain it without historical, structural or judging way)… new testament was qualified by?  deals with facts  under historical covers practical issues (cult [mass])  Under historical covers theoretical issues (theology [ex; why do Christians go to certain churches?]  under historical covers institutional issues (papey, rabbi, mulla/iman, priests) 9 KEY CHARACTERISTICS 1) Belief system; usually reli comes with (universe, reality, how things function... explains why we are here.. what we're doing. [world view.. meaning outlook..christian outlook, jewish outlook] 2) Community: religion is never an individual thing, it's ALWAYS A COMMUNITY. it's a physical body of human being. religion itself speaks as a community (people of israel). - israel/church/umma 3) Central myths: (myth.. what we used to describe stories..myths are central stories to describe how it's understandable). myth has nothing to do with true or false. Don't use myth in any bad sense. creation myth (they're real), myth about religious figures, 4) Rituals: no fundamental moment in life would be real without rituals. r's are actions that in act the belief sys… which makes it real. so a ritual is a belief that's inacted and are made real through ceremonies. Rituals have a beg, middle and end. It's directly related to super human beings (something beyond us). Through a ritual we in act things human beings cannot do (ex: priest had a unique function...has the power to transform wine into love). Meaning none of us can do it but a priest can through a ritual. Rituals have a special struc and func. (It takes you from one state to another... single to married). Rituals are not stupid they carry the whole belief sys!!! * ritual act:  Liminal stage is where transformation happens..  Pre-liminal: thru ritual you take them from the community and mark them separate (bride wearing white). Separated from family, end of childhood, single status, becoming Canadian etc. etc. (done through either food, or change of clothes). rituals…moment of creating a community of equal.. rituals are very tiring that's why they have a time limit.  post liminal: major acts in life are in-acted through rituals (adulthood, birth, marriage, death etc)  Rituals are expressive. You feel compelled to carry it through...experience reality through ritualized ceremonies. 5) Ethics: every religion comes with an ethical system (don't kill, don't steal, don't lie). Ethics are universal and are revealed from beyond and it controls human actions. (ex: Christianity to feel proud/ argonant is bad, even food we eat).. puts restrictions sort of. Sept 17th 6) characteristic/emotional experiences: many religions say you should fear the lord. Feeling that you’re blessed…that god has accepted you. Ecstasy…feeling of elation (happiness)  Fear/love, guilt, loyalty, ecstasy, devotion, bliss, sense of mystery 7) Material artifacts/expressions:  Places: mosques, hindu temples, sacred mountains  Clothing: burqa or veil, monastic robes, roseries  MUSIC: most complex instrument = organ (1700) 8) Sacredness/ holiness: something that reaches beyond.  Sacredness: Religions are concerned usually with the deepest level of reality/concernity. Everything has its origins in mysterious. Ex: mother earth, Japanese religion the spirits… this mysterious has many names.  Monotheism: believe in one reality  Polytheism: believe in more realities 9) Symbolism: religion always speaks through symbolism. We turn everyday words into symbols. Ex: may the lord be with you. Humans always want to use metaphors and religion is always filled with metaphors TRADITIONS: 1)western Mediterranean tradition 2)Indic traditions 3)Chinese traditions Presuppositions Western Mediterranean tradition  JUDAISM  CHRISTIANISM  ISLAM o western Mediterranean tradition: all have the origin in the middle east, all have the origin in the biblical judiasm and the H.Bibal. o all have common central myths… there are heavens above o they believe in god (him) as specifications… can’t see him can’t touch him o active in history (shows himself by controlling human history) o Prophecy or divine messengers… they convey divine will. It’s thru the prophets that we know what the god wants.. o they all have books (scripture or holy books) o orthodocy: there’s a proper way of being who you are… you have to do this this and this… all seem to be thinking that there’s a proper way of being it.. you can’t just be muslim.. you have to be this way of muslim o They came into being very aware of each other…keenly conscious of eachother… o they all believe that human existance goes beyond death o all of them more of less share the same religious ethics o Time is linear. Linear understanding of history…world comes to an end.. ( Hinduism/Buddhism: time is circular… everything is cyclic) judaism: historical religious tradition. It’s a religion of ethical monotheism  Origins of abraham  Called the promise land  Origin in one man…Abraham was called by god>>>> god entered into a covenant with this man. Ill make you a nation and you will be my people and ill be your god[berit]  covenantal bond b/w the nation people and god  god liberates the nation through moses  Fundamental b/c moses recieves torah.  Jews believe that they are a continuation of the historical people of israel  Narrative [biblical judaism]: abraham goes to Egypt with joseph and they are enslaved… god gives moses the torah. David was not only a monarch he was chosen by god (cult of the temple)…temple has priests (did the functions of sacrifice…sacrificial religious tradition through animals) who look after the people to keep the religion in order. >>>> 5& 6 B.C.E the temple was destroyed by romans…take the elite with them to Babylonia. Defeat them… 2temple built after 70 years>>> the new beginning.  bib judaism was centered on a monarch..david..  The major ritual in the temple was the sacrifice.. done as an act of forgiveness  the monarchy was never reconstituted  restitution of the monarchy was part of the religion  Significance? Temple, sacrifice... priests 70 C.E. Rabbinic Judaism:  :is a response to the destruction of the second temple and the reexamining of the status of the covenant.  main form that lives uptil now and explains judiasm  dual torah judaism  the destruction of the temple did not mean the end of judaism  Who resided in the temple? Goooooooooooood.. it was the holiest place on earth…destroy temple where’s holiness? Holiness continues and abides in the people. The people of israel become the locus of holiness… “Am israel” >>people of israel  there’s an end of sacrifice and the beginning of something else  god manifested his holiness through people  It was possible to serve god without the sacrifice.. but by 2 deeds! by good deeds and the study of the torah 3 characs of judaism: 1) Believe in one god… god is unique… -God sinai: manifested himself to a man called moses or mount sini. -Torah of Mount Sinai st 2) They privilege the 5 books of moses (1 5 books of the bibal)>>. Pathriatral history..history of fathers 3) The jews considered themselves as a historical continuation of people of Israel. o “Religion is the general theory of this world, it’s encyclopedic compendium, it’s logic in popular form, it’s spiritual point d’honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement. 2dit’s universal basis of consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality” o 7 theories of religion by Daniel pals  Torah 1) 5 books of moses 2) Bible 3) law  The great transformation – by karen armstrong th Sept 24  Berit  The tower of babel: 1) Broke down the tower, and made different languages so people couldn’t cooperate  Bible also has 2 meanings… bible in Judaism and bible in Christianity Israelite Cult: rituals -everything is centered in the temple.. have to do everything in the temple Jewish Exile: Babilonians came and destroyed the temple they also destroyed the church Monarchy: divinely established institution *Monarchy *temple moses News patriarchs -Abraham>> joseph With the temple came 2 instituitions: 1) priestly 2) sacrifice: was for atonement David- king with where the covenant is renewed 70.C.E romans -rabanic Judaism also known as dual torah judaism -what’s the meaning of the covanent when there’s no monarch and no temple… It’s rebanic Judaism that explains what real Judaism is. -the new temple is the people of Israel, -r.j said that you can obey the god by 2 ways… through the study of the torah and by living a virtuous life. -each jew has to do what the god say as he’s a priest. >> - mishnah nd 2 temple -temple’s still standing but one thing was missing..what? the king.. when the jesus came he claimed to be the Masaya. To claim that you’re a masaya you have to claim that you’re a monarch -to be a true king you have to be a descendent of david Romans destroy the 2 ndtemple (70 C.E) -sinai What’s the mishnah?  It’s a digest of the oral torah, confined by the rabbis around 200-300 b.c.  It’s divided into 6 chapters* know these… 1) Consines: Agricultural laws (when do you bring stuff to the temple? How much do you give to the poor etc) 2) Appointed times meaning festivals 3) Women : marriage and divorce 4) Damages: criminal law (buying, selling etc) 5) Sanctities (service in the temple and the sacrifice of the temple) 6) Purity: the laws of ritual contamination and how you are sanctified (eg. Eating pork is hated by jews…>>feel dirty) ( not allowed to touch a corps…people who touch corps are outcasts= japanese culture) Mishnah are the traditions of the jews that are not written down  Digest of law… note book>>>rabbis’ they study the law..leaders of the new form of judaism. The mishnah is the bases of the R.J  Initial statement of r.j was in the mishnah  Mishnah stresses that the sanctity of israel precisely lies in that the world is ordered, everything has a meaning and a ritual name. understands the world to be meaningful>>it’s by this understanding that the sancitity of israel is understood. Humanity is the center of creation…how is that possible?>>by sanctifying and desecrating the world. Implies that the power of a human to initiate stop actions that are good and bad. Such that every individual can respond to the covenant. Thus the mishnah formulates that will and deed contitute the actors or movement of the world. The result is sanctification or uncleanness/impurity  What can man do? Mishnah answered.. Man through will and deed is the master of this world. Meaning we are responsible for everything, we can either keep the covenant with god or break it. Sactitiy of israel lies in its people, food, etc. therefore you don’t need a sacrificial attonment for forgiveness.  2 torah’s: written (bible) or the oral torah  Judaism that survived to tell what judaism is , is r.judaism  Talmud: is the commentary of the mishnah… it’s a digest of laws. Theology of R.judaism -discuss the fundamental..what does r.j teach?… how does.. rj. Answer to the destruction of the temple? -it teaches/believes in one god who is unique, loving. Judiasm is an ethical monothiasm. 4 principles of theology of R.J 1) God formed creation according to a plan (this world has a meaning).. there’s a meaning to this universe.. that plan is revealed through the teaching of the torah. The exile has a meaning according to r.j. Isareal’s exile has been designed so that israel can go back to the covenant. 2) R.j says this is a perfect universe …why? Cus god is good. As such human affairs are worthy of those attentions. Why does god care of us being good or bad? Cus he loves perfection… each one of us is answerable to the covenant of god 3) Disobedience: Human beings have disrupted the world through their disobedience. Human actions disrupt perfection. 4) God will heal the world: God will ultimately restore the protection of the universe. How? Israel will repent and god will keep covenant. People will be gathered in peace. *Pass over..define what a passover is as a ritual or a ceremony Pesach: passover:  one of the most commonly observed jewish holidays and the first of the 3 major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (symbol of freedom)  begins on the 15 days of the jewish month of Nissan  the main observances of pesach are related to the Exodus from egypt after generations of slavery  during this week jews ounleavened cracker-like bread. Bear and anything with yeast is forbidden  the name pass over comes from the hebrew, meaning to pass through, to exempt or to spare.  Pesach is also the name of the sacrificial offering (a lamb) and is then eaten  The pesach happens on a Saturday after the sabbath has conlucded  Passover opens with a festive meal (seder) in which hisotorical stories, song and prayers are said in a fixed order  Symbolic food: hardboiled egg ( symbolizing life and rebirth), bitter horse- radish (symbolizing hardships of slavery), salt water where egg and potato are dipped (symbolizes tears and joys of freedom)  Sanctification: blessing over wine Sabbath  Day of rest, reflection of gods activities in the universe.  This is from genesis. th  God created the world in 6 days and rest on the 7 day  Weekly reminding of this creation  God ordered them to observe it>>>it’s part of the covenant  Exodus 20:8……..remember the sabbath day and KEEP IT HOLY  Exodus 31:16…….observe throughout generation everlasting covanent  All man of war and labour are prohibited (doing business, spending money, doing house work, cooking, driving, writing using electricity>>>Can’t do anything beneficial)  Cultic practice. The most fundamental way of jewish life is lived is by keeping the sabbath holy and sanctified.  It’s a weekly reminder of the creation of the universe ..the reminder of the covanent of the god and his people  Sabbath begin Friday night (the moment the sun goes down) it’s received by lighting of the candle>>symbolism… god first created light therefore let there be light  The family gathers and they receive a holy sabbath and they receive a ritual meal (sanctification of bread and wine and read the kiddush and then you can consume it).  Then comes a blessing of the sabbath  At sundown there’s another ritual that ends the sabbath. You light candle, say prayers, regular day comes back and then you continue the normal day Yom Kippur  25 hour day of solemn, prayer and atonement  Full day of prayer in which you account for your deeds and you admit to your faults (greediness, sins etc) and ask for forgiveness (say it in plural… we we we..sense of community)… if you repent god will listen  Fasting without food or water (any kinds of luxury are not allowed. Eg: leather was not allowed>sign of luxury)  Usually spend day in the synagogue  God sitting like a judge and watching people walk pass  There’s also a prayer for the dead  The book of jonah is read  Yom kippur ends and your forgiveness is sent to the heaven and the gates of heaven is closed  Starts Tuesday night ends Wednesday night Arab muslim jews and the askanashi jews in eastern europe>>> both types ara rabbinic jews. Before we were subjects our rights were given by the monarch  Haskala (reformed Judaism) : enlightenment of jewism Oct 1 :  Religious law in Judaism is called HALAKHA  As long as ur applauding the halakha you are maintaining the covenant with god  Progressive revelation (1800): means for every age there’s a specific time bound law  Is an internal movement in European >>the opening of the European society >> around 1800 formed the Reform Judaism… how to remain truly Jewish and to remain the time. Age has its own way of being Jewish.. the principle problem people have was the issue of the HALAKHA.. being Jewish is not going against the halakha…  Halakha..whose authorities are you doubting? Rabbai>>mishna  The theological concept of the reform Judaism is the notion of … new ethical and moral principles were revealed.. the halakha.. were based on ethical conditions..>> new more ethical principles>> idea behind progressive revelation  Judaism cannot be superseded, it has the element of renewal in it  The notion of evolution is spreading like fire in the 1900, (social evolution)  Reform Judaism: Judaism itself has what it needs to be a progressive revelation..  A platform is a jewish reform movement to renew the way of life  Look at Philadelphia 1869 on blackboard>>> you’re responsible for it Philadelphia platform is very idealistic 1) Messianic redemption of a war is not needed. What is the perfection of the war? The whole humanity reaching peace/perfection>>. The messianic hope is universal. The messianic aim of israel is not the restoration of the old jewish state under a descendent of david. But is the union of all people of god in the confession of unity and their call to moral santification 2)Redemption: The destruction of the second temple is not a punishment it’s fundamental. The destruction of the second temple is not a punishment for the sinfulness of isreal but is a result of the divine purpose revealed to abraham 3)We’re all equal in front of god. The aaronic priesthood and the mosaic sacrificial cult were steps to the real priesthood of all people which began with the dispersion of jews 4)The notion of election: being chosen... in what sense is Israel special? Ewvery distinction b/w aaronids and non –aaronids refers to the after existence of the soul only 5)Hebrew language becomes central: Called upon the revival of the Hebrew language (reform Judaism (smaller than conservative movement) is letting go of many traditional things…) conservative movement believes in the applauding of the halakha.. (Conservative moment is most dominant... it believes that the halakha develops with time). Orthodox [R.J] is b/w reform and conservative…..the cultivation of the hebrew language must always be desired by people in fulfillment of a sacred duty and must give way in prayer ... which prayer if not understood is a soulless form. Give me a synocsis of genesis.. give a summery of the genesis. (1 book of moses) Summery of the genesis  God created heaven and earth  Before creation everything was chaotic>>waters covered the earth  God divided light from darkness and created different things on each of the 6 days  Then created humanity, male and female  God rested setting a pattern of a weekly sabbath  God causes a mist to rise from the ground, and vegetation comes out  He then created adam and plants a garden in Eden whewre he places the man before creating the animals and the woman Eve  God was the creator of good and evil  Discuss what the hebrew bible is.. small essay… Hebrew bible or Old Testament  When u say bible there’s the jewish part and the christian part  Hebrew bible is the scripture of the jews is available to the christians as the old testament  Hebrew. B is a collections of book>> not just one book (24 books) that constitute the canon of the jewish tradition (what the jews considered to be scripture.. u can’t add to it or take from it)… by the destruction of the temple by the common era 70 C.E all the book were there.. (some books go back atleast 600 years or so)  The book was divided into 3 major sections: 1) torah (5 books of moses): genesis, exodus, levitics, numbers, deutronomy (law)>> where the story of the jews begin 2) prophets:judges, samuel, kings, izeah 3) writings: songs, proverbs, song od songs, chronicles  symmetic languages: arabic, acadian, serian, all of languages in ethiopia Content of Hebrew bible or Old Testament 1) Narratives: tells stories. More than half consist of narratives… distinguish b/w legends, saga, history prophets, fiction (book of Jonah etc.), myths… portrays them as true and equal 2) Law: inside the narrative is embedded many laws. Ex: book of the covenant (read exodus 21-24)>> know an example of law from Hebrew bible. (Deuteronomy 12-26). Law has a universal aspect to it (deep sense of social justice) … things ought to be done properly. Formulated by god to people to observe as a sign of the covenant. justice: deep sense of sympathy sort of towards the poor b.purity (deep concern for ritual purity) 3) Hymns and prayers (songs): meditative religious poems that reflect the emotionality of the living... many used in cultic practices 4) wisdom: comes in proverb form… universal realities (ex: death and life are in the power of tongue)>>> has nothing to do with god… it’s the pure human experience… wisdom literature 5) Prophetic material: form of discourse usually one man standing and talking about do’s and don’ts. Covers predictions, it’s short pity saying ( ex: you’re all bad.. not keeping the covenant) … tells you what’s going to happen.. usually criticizing the current situation and predicting what’s to come Themes of the Hebrew bible or old testament 1) Creation of monotheism: one god (YHWH) >> he’s the creator of the universe >> only god israel should respond to. Absolute power over creation and his control of history (can alter human history and interfere in it) 2) Covenant and redemption: the creator is a special god who at some point in hisotry made a covenant with his people.. relationship that has a nature of a contract (u keep your end of the law and I’ll keep you as my people). But also the law has universal elements to it. Give them land, have them dwell in it. Tension: god’s love overwhelms the aspect of the covenant, he will punish them but he can never forget israel.. redemption is based on keeping of the covenant. Israel understood it’s relationship to god as a marriage (song by song) 3) Ethics: law is very ethical and consistent (killing a cow is just as bad as killing a cat) >>. Not kill, steal etc. if I catch you hurt anyone I will kill you. (social justice and purity are intertwined) . consistent in the bible. Rich and poor alike, intervension behalf of the weak. Demands god makes on israel are moral demands. 4) Theodicy: the problem of evil. If theres zeus and appolo… if both likes you.. one of them hits you… if god can do everything then why can’t god heal everyone? Why is the innocent suffering? Job... there’s evil Oct 15 th Creation Genesis abraham, patriarchs ^ moses davidic babylonian exile return of 2ndtemple 1)king (70c.e) 2) destruction of the temple messiah [anointed] 3)Kingdom R.J 2 torah mishna  Reform: 1) progressive revernation 2) halakha (M.T)  orthodox  conservative --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------ Jesus/ christ: o a preacher o He was a jew o came controversial >>controversial ideas o has disciples o Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, whom a majority of Christian denominations believe to be the Son of God. Jesus the Anointed">> he was named jesus b/c he was said to save his people from their sins o scholars agree that Jesus was a Jewish teacher from Galilee in Roman Judaea, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate. Scholars have offered various portraits of Jesus, which at times share a number of overlapping attributes, such as the leader of an apocalyptic movement, Messiah, a charismatic healer, a sage and philosopher, or a social reformer who preached of the "Kingdom of God" as a means for personal and egalitarian social transformation. o Christians hold Jesus to be the awaited Messiah of the Old Testament and refer to him as Jesus Christ or simply as Christ. Christians believe that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of a virgin, performed miracles, founded the Church, died sacrificially by crucifixion to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into heaven, from which he will return. The majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, and the Second Person of the Holy Trinity o In Islam, Jesus is considered one of God's important prophets. In Islam, Jesus is a bringer of scripture, and the product of a virgin birth, but not the victim of crucifixion. Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh. Bahá'í scripture almost never refers to Jesus as the Messiah, but calls him a Manifestation of God. o The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his Baptism, Transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension. o The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g. his ministry, parables and miracles o The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often called the Passion week) occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels. The narrative for that week starts by a description of the final entry into Jerusalem, and ends with his crucifixion o the final week that begins with his entry into Jerusalem, concludes with his crucifixion and burial on that Friday. The New Testament accounts then describe the resurrection of Jesus three days later, on the Sunday following his death. o In the New Testament, the Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his twelve apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. o Christian views: Christians consider Jesus the Christ and believe that through his death and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life. These teachings emphasize that as the willing Lamb of God, Jesus chose to suffer in Calvary as a sign of his full obedience to the will of the Eternal Father, as an "agent and servant of God". According to the Bible, God raised him from the dead. He ascended to heaven, to sit at the "Right Hand of God," and he will return to earth again for the Last Judgment and the establishment of the Kingdom of God in the World to Come o Jewish view: According to Conservative Judaism, Jews who believe Jesus is the Messiah have "crossed the line out of the Jewish community".Reform Judaism, the modern progressive movement, states "For us in the Jewish community anyone who claims that Jesus is their savior is no longer a Jew and is an apostate"  His death (death also known as passion) and resurrection  He has to have the blood of david in him  Early Christians did not think of themselves anything but as jewish  We know about Jesus from the gospels (4 retellings of the life of Jesus and his death)  The 1 3 gospels tell us about his life o Tells you he’s Davidic descent o Virgin birth (his mom was not touched by a man ( an angle came) o Foretold in scriptures (mostly in the books of the prophets) o He’s a miracle worker (he heals the sick and can cast away demons from people, sitting with poor people, people that are suffering, the lowlifes etc.) o Messiah o Proclaimer of the kingdom of god o Presented jesus as an end of time phenomena o Speaks in parables o He was a criticizer: he has a lot to denounce (don’t do this… >> sleeping with your neighbors wife is bad.. no even thinking of doing it is bad) o Fulfilling scripture  His crucifixion and his resurrection Is significant b/c of these 2 reasons: o His death was sacrificial and it was propitiatory (through this death you get something out of it.. not like a regular death>>it was an offering) >> son of god was sacrificed (just like the jewish temple was sacrificed) o His resurrection was a triumph of a death (making the universe perfect again through him)  Now we have a new ADAM… (Judaism: new covenant and new Israel) >> altogether a new creation… therefore early Christian movement was a radical movement  Now christianity sees itself as a new covenant  He was the sacrificial lamb>>> he redeemed all of humanity o Analyse the main things about the apostle creed  Apostles creed ( one of the earliest creeds>>centered on Jesus)  The Apostles' Creed is an early statement of Christian belief, a creed or "symbol".It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western tradition, including the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists.  The name of the Creed may come from the probably 5th-century tradition that, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit after Pentecost, each of the TwelveApostles dictated part of it. It is traditionally divided into twelve articles: 1. I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth. 2. I believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord. 3. He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. 4. He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. 5. He descended to the dead. On the third day he rose again. 6. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. 7. He will come again to judge the living and the dead. 8. I believe in the Holy Spirit, 9. the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, 10. the forgiveness of sins, 11. the resurrection of the body, 12. and life everlasting. o He’s called logos (means eternal) o You worship Jesus, a holy spirit a son and a father o Life of Jesus:  pre-existence  incarnation= he was made flesh (not without humiliation/suffering>>wiped, spat on)  resurrection: christianity doesn’t function without resurrection o Jesus christ (christ is the greek word for messiah) o The god of the universe is jesus not the emperor Caesar o He is both human and beyond this world o Jesus was glorified  Holy catholic church:: forgiveness of sins  Jesus has risen up to heaven  Paul is an educated Jew who knew the torah in and out. He becomes another jesus that runs around from community to community to help people out  Jesus died around 33, and paul’s active around 50 Oct 22 *question about hebrew bible - exam, id (5/10) and short essay (2/4) - scripture of Christianity  2 sections (old testament - hebrew bible which is a translation in greek by the Alexandria jews and the new testament - 27 books)  4 gospels, big chunk of them are letters of Paul, letters to the christian community founded the movement, theological letters, most important revolutionary documents in Christianity - Paul is fundamental>>>why? Conversion and gentile (not just for jews)  Paul  Paul the Apostle referred to as "the Apostle Paul" or "Saint Paul" also known as Saul of Tarsus, is the most influential early Christian missionary. The writings ascribed to him by the church (the Pauline epistles) form a considerable portion of the New Testament. The influence on Christian thinking of the epistles ascribed to him has been significant, due in part to his association as a prominent apostle of Christianity during the spreading of the Gospel through early Christian communities across the Roman Empire.  Paul's conversion dramatically changed the course of his life. Through his missionary activity and writings he eventually transformed religious belief and philosophy around the Mediterranean Basin. His leadership, influence and legacy led to the formation of communities dominated by Gentile groups that worshiped the God of Israel, adhered to the "Judaic moral code", but relaxed or abandoned the ritual and dietary teachings of the Law of Moses, that these laws and rituals had either been fulfilled in the life of Christ or were symbolic precursors of Christ, all on the basis of Paul's teachings of the life and works of Jesus Christ and his teaching of a New Covenant (or "new testament")established through Jesus' death and resurrection.  was a jew, good upstanding jew, educated in the Hebrew bible, he thought these new jews were destroying the religion  13 letters in the new testament, only 7 can be safely attributed to him, represent the original christian movement  written only 20 years after the death of jesus; did not know of the jews that were in Palestine  to paul the meeting with the risen jesus was the most fundamental part of his life,confirmed to him that jesus is the messiah and that the Christian faith is true, and that he was elected by jesus as an apostle to the gentiles (jews)  2 things that are separating christianity from Judaism 1) jesus is Messiah and the opening of the jewish faith to non jews o risen jesus is the center of salvation and creation o died in 62, lived in radical community, view of salvation was cosmic. world view was apocalyptic (world is going to come to an end) o believed in radical transformation, sharing in a brotherly means o circumcision was the sign of the covenant o would travel from community to community converting gentiles  Pauline  speaks about the church as the body of christ, marriage as mutual submission in the body, freedom of conscience even if it is ill-informed (right as a christian; very radical). theology of the cross, superiority of love over faith and hope.  how do you define goodness? earliest thinker to highlight the oppression of the law and the contradictory nature of being law abiding (hebrew bible)gentile does not need to abide by the law to be a christian, just have to believe in god. and be a good Christian  he is essentially radicalizing Judaism  speaks about a notion of freedom and charismatic experience; how do you know your christian? it is in you, you speak in tongues.  letter to the romans (monumental in christianity)  problem of the law; essay on the theme of righteousness through faith and not the law  divine righteousness is impartial, god does not care if you are a jew or a gentile, all equal and sons of abraham (with paul abraham is not just the son of jews, but the son of anyone who has faith)  law lures you to self righteousness; once this happens it produces death in place of life.  this enters into a movement of the spirit, faith justifies you so when you do good deeds its a reflection of your goodness not the source of it, breaking away from the law  good is accomplished because you belong to jesus  Roman Empire / Christian Church  christianity became official religion of the roman empire: en empirical tradition  church becomes missionary and persecution of non christians as the roman empire expanded  the bible undergoes a transformation, gets translated again from greek into latin  christianity in latin europe became established with wealth and power which created problems because jesus told you to leave everything and did not care about wealth, so the church was headed to a crisis  made their priests salient (cannot marry), priests could not accept money  printing press, enlightenment, rise of cities, bourgeoisie, people are becoming more educated (rise of universities) more wealth, created the breeding ground for resistance towards this growing powerful church - Luther o was a professor; was constantly under pressure and could not sleep because he could o was reading paul, salvation through faith, what is this damnation o so he saw the pope and the church selling indulgences and was really pissed o believed they were corrupting Christianity o protestantism causes a rift in christianity that has profound consequences - Protestant Revolution o they do not call themselves protestants, call themselves reformers to build the true church of paul o luther and calvin are the key figures in reformation o characteristics  luther felt the pope and church had deformed and corrupted christian faith  1. sola scriptura: faith is in the scripture and the bible, the only thing that unites us together is the bible, scripture alone; undermines the structure of church, priests and the pope; scripture is the answer to questions of faith  nobody has control over the interpretation of scripture, especially the church  anything christian doctrine has to be based on the scripture  2. sola fide; faith alone saves you; only faith justifies you;  there is no free will; god gives you christianity as a gift.  you receive it through faith and not by good deeds  this is a matter of divine will (we receive it by gods grace and not by good deeds, opens the door to new creation, it is not earned it is given; and the source of all of these things is in scripture alone, no hidden truths in Christianity everything we need comes from the bible October 29th  Everything in christanity has to come out of scripture..  Faith alone saves you.. connected to letters of paul..  Paul and his problem with the law..  Folowing scripture gives 3 results 1) Church has no authority over the bible 2) Each Christian is a radical element and can decide what the scripture is about.. 3) Everything in Christianity has to be based on scripture.. no place for priests and hope.. christinaty was a priestly religion.. can communicate with god.. you can’t do anything without the priest.. need priest to pray, baptist everything.. that priest has a funciton that’s official, meaning he has a secret and powers… given by god to function b/w humanity and god.. good things you do are signs of being elected/ being good.. you’ve been selected by god.. NO GOOD DEED CAN SAVE A CHRISTIAN SOUL.. only god saves you… 6 points about protestant revolution  Priesthood of all the believers…made every Christian into a priest... I can pray to god directly, I can read my scripture directly, your relationship becomes with the fellow Christians not with the church..  Can read, have books, have done atleast to elementary education… europe has an education with a mass revolution.. the bible was in latin.. translated the bible into german.. and translate it into all the vulgate languages.. each christian house has a bible and can read it..  3 principle was the priestlyness of the believers.. each one of us has the dignity of god.. he’s no different from you th  4 chracteristic is that worship is heavily transformed.. sermon becomes the center of the christian experience.. as opposite to eucharist.. preaching of the word of god or scripture..hymns are singing and become fundamental..  Icons statues and pictures… iconclast: person that hates icons, statues and pictures.. they destroy every statues, icon, picture of jesus.. pronstanism.. it feels like instead of worshiping the god you’re worshiping the icon.. major reformation of worshiping.. preeching becomes the centre of the relgion.. sermon becomes the highlight of the mass.. erupose was a network of shrines and saints.. prontanism collapsed all that.. no saints no pilgrimage, no funeral masses.. death in a catholic ..>> approx. 1/3 of the wealth goes to the funeral mass..  Christains were obssessed with music.. >> can’t understand christianity without music.. divided human voices into levels.. a lot of it was centered on the human mass.. new form of being religious has swept into the land.. woman preechers.. people coming and joining them.. radical transformation of how europe looked>>>dark black clothing…  Reform of worship, priesthoodness.. th  5 element:reordering of the pronstant community: want to live a christian life both internally and externally… we become a holy community.. have to live outstanding infront of god.. good pronstant god fearing community.. open an orphanage, open a house for the elderly. Start inflicting religious laws>>no sex before marriage.. no drunkness etc… there are penalties against things..a new true community of believers and will stand in a pleasing manner infront of god… the state itself becomes confessional..  6 a new mode of sainthood: henry the 8 in England…>>> the church and monarch becomes one.. I’m the head of the state… I’m the church in a way.. the monarch becomes the head of the national state.. wants your heart… rise of the confessional state.. only a good Anglican can be a monarch .. no roman catholic can become the head of england.. one religion and one colour enforced on the citizens.. if a person doesn’t show up to the mass they get severely punished..  The catholic church has to answer to the reformation challenge. Talks in a bad way>> catholic relgion is unholy, corrupted etc..  .. 1) What did the trent council say?  God elects you and you receive salvation by faith.>>no it’s not.. faith can be acquired by our good deeds.. it reuttered the doctrine of rebirth..  There was an agenda in the trent council.. had to discuss how a christian is saved by good deeds and free will.. st 1) 1 was salvation: councils degree of trent.. human will is free to accept or reject god’s grace.. (can say yes or no to god)… Trent council 1545-1563>>> pope and the catholic establishment.. they did it through the trent council.. they meet in a gathering of the bishops to discuss the matter.. there are rules for change.. change comes through councils of the bishops.. good deeds is part of salvation.. 2) 2 ndthing: scripture and tradition>>tradition of the catholic church that’s independent of scripture.. that’s as holy and authoritative.. tell us what scripture is about.. CAN’T UNDERSTAND SCRIPTURE BY ITSELF…it’s the tradition that lets us understand the scripture.. the insitutiun of the church the holy roman catholic church is a source of authority where divine revelation can come through to reality.. reiteration of the priestly function of the church.. 3) 3 : sacriment: can’t be christian without a priest.. function through the priestly function of the church.. theirs is gurantee through historical chain to jesus himself.. catholic church is saying where were u prontant.. what about the chain of tradition? Catholic church still say that there’s 2 types of people.. litay …  you have to be 25 years old, unmarried.. and needs a university degree…  Half of germany is catholic.. spain, poland etc>> catholic church was not destroyed.. it forcefully came back..  Anabaptist  *Gospel, jesus, paul, prontant reformation, catholic reformation (trent), anabaptist* Modern sensibility: evengence o The rediscovery of the protestant revolution.. o Evangelism is movement after ww2 in protestant churches.. o What do we mean by evangelism?  Emphazies the pronstate state >> bibilical centered >>has a bible emphasis… has a bible preeching, big tent come and preech the bible..>> small study bible groups.. regular reading of the bible..  It’s also an emphasis on the cross: death of jesus is season as the most fundamental death in the history>>> died for humanity..  Emphasize the saving death of jesus… it has an anthropology>>understands what an human being is.. fully damned>>evil>>unsavable til the death of jesus saves you and makes you clean>>redeems you.. death of jesus is your saving moment..  If they’re not reading the bible they’re converting… Christian believes and rituals o The god of the chrstians is the god of israel… they believe and worship god of israel o Jesis of nazare: he’s an historical figure>>ultimate significance. You can be so many forms of christian but there’s only ONE CONSTANT..>>ultimate constant and significance is the jesis of nazare..he is universal and he is GOD to christians… being christian allows a commitment to follow him>>he’s divine>>he provides the ideal way we should follow and live.. around his death he had most significance because he was crucified/ sacrified. 3 things of his death: 1) Jesus’s death was on behalf of others 2) His death is associated with forgiveness of humanity’s sins (death being the ultimate moment of significance) 3) Associated with his ressurection>>> conviction of triumph of god>> good in the face of evil.. meaning this creation is good>> but his ultimate was sacrifice>> and through that we can redeem ourselves as humanity o Cross: the moment jesus was on the cross o God is also active through history through the notion of the holy spirit, meaning father in heaven o Believes in scripture as the basis of their life>> there’s notion of a church>. Can’t be christian on your own>> it’s a body>> christians believe they’re people of god (similar to judaism>>am israel)>>>that they’re covenantal.. they are also chosen>> they also have a sign just like the jews>> the church Nov 5th Christian practices 1) Notion of Christian prayer 2) sacrament Prayer divided into 3 categories 1) Adoration of the lord>>> praising of the lord 2) Thanksgiving 3) Confession>> formal if you’re in a catholic church… or personal where you admit to your faults Lord’s Prayer It speaks to the deity as a father. It’s the closest thing you can have as a mirror image>> god’s kingly rule on earth and heaven >> desire to conform to his will>> desire to live according to lord’s will necessities of life and a plea for forgiveness Rituals in Christianity  Has a formal name called the sacrament  A sacrament is a communal ritual act instituted by Christ himself or the church which communicate the presence and the grace of god to the believers/ participants  A sacrament employs gestures, words or physical elements like oil, wine or certain habits (clothes), candles and water 1) Ex: if you’re going to be baptist, you submerge in water and you are reborn  In a sacrament there’s a meeting with god and humans ( a communion) that’s why sacrifices are fundamental  Mysteries>> transformation are beyond humans>> wine is said to be the blood of jesus>> it’s through that process where god performances his grace  Paul speaks about the myterion.. to refer to god’s secret wisdom>> which is impossible for humans to attain>> beyond human reasons.. which god revelas himself through a mysterious process.. 7 sacraments 1) Baptism 2) Conformation 3) Eucharist [process of the whole mass] 4) Confession: has social implications about secrecy and complications 5)Marriage: when you form it, It was seen to be impossible to dissolve… two becomes one 6)Ordination: becoming a priest is a mystery 7)Extreme unction: the end of life  These sacraments have become a system>> rituals punctuates one’s life  * christianity’s is really unique to its music*  Always fall back into the presuppositions of the western traditions 1) Same story of all three religions>>> first believer of Abraham and all share the same myth>> all share the hebrew bible ISLAM Arabia 2) 2 major towns>>> madina, mecca 3) Desert like climates with extreme temperatures>> no massive agricultural settlements 4) There’s no surplus to be taxed>> no major big settlements 5) no major rivers and lakes and cannot sustain intensive existence 6) This massive land was  racially homogenous (arabs)  spoke the same language (arabic)  tribal (arabic) is a form of social organization that claims it as a hindgeship of blood>> one father>> called a nomadic existence. Nomadic means specializes niche existence. Tribe is a form of identity. Each one knows their ancestors. They have camels>. There’s pastoral existence with very few semi agricultural fields in oasis. o There’s no central government or police o The tribe is what guaranteed the security as a person o Tribe is not just a social form is a political form. One protects the tribe and gets protected by the pride o What’s the most fundamental part of the society???? Manhood it meant MAD courage (can go and get killed as if everyone is a soldier), generosity, ability to be patient (desert>>marching under the sun that can kill anyone), helping the weak, arrogance, love of one’s tribe above everybody, seeking good reputation and earn it. Even above god there was faith (a blind universal force) th Nov 19  Muhammad born on 570  Mecca was a town>> a pilgrimage center around kauba [cube]. It exibits the same characteristics of the house of god..>> god resided in the jewish temple.. same thing here.. the temple was a cubic structure  There was a tribe in the name of quragsh>> well respected.. like all nomadic tribes they were also warriors .. in the tribe they teach the kids to fight>>> the tribal society was an ungovernable structure>> they were good in fighting and poetry>> honouring ancestors>> don’t believe resurrection>> faith pulls you like a beast of prey..  Muhammad joins into the business of the tribe was married to one of the richest woman in the town… >> have camals that carry stuff for trading goods with other tribes.. muhammad is one of the established people in the city but he’s unhappy>> something’s growing in him>>> he did not seek prophecy and was uterly taken back>> first vision was a cosmic vision which overwhelmed him>> something so comic that pressed on the will of muhammad >> he said someone was ordering him to recite.>> then comes the 1 revelation >> He had an experience that not a normal human being would have… he’s hearing a voice other than him>>phenominon we call it a prophecy… he runs to his wife telling her to cover him  His uncle tells him if it’s true then Nomos[law>>hebrew=torah] of david has descended upon you…  Here we have a gentile [non-jew/ non- christian]  Muhammad is out side of rome>> outside of the jewish zone>> arabs have no share in that  At 570 >>christinization  After muhammad had more revelation >> he was the warn (er)>>but he was not able to convert his tribe>> the tribe saw him as deserting their father… they thought he was crazy>>> therefore muhammad preached a religion of monotheism  Early message was: 1) One god 2) Repentance/ convert 3) Chastisement  What did he preach? 1) He said there’s one god creator>> he’s the judge.. muhammad stuck with radical monotheism>> god that has no connection to humanity in a familial way>> he believed that god would come and hit the unbelieving arabs  Addition to this is resurrection>> all humanity will be raised to judgment  Resurrection: o Judgment o Hell/heaven 2) After about 10 years>>> only some of the poor people converted 3) Divided his life in 2 sections  His carrier in mecca  Fundamental: after 10 years of hard work he failed… gap b/w monotheism and paganism that’s unbridgable>> you can’t kill a king no matter how crazy you are>> muhammad’s blood was untouchable therefore the tribe was not able to kill him unless his family gave him up  His carrier in madina 4) 620: he started preaching 5) 619 wife died/ uncle died (uncle that adapted him) 6) 620: evil uncle came and said if you kill muhammad we’ll give you blood money>> agree we’ll give you restitution 7) 622: life of this religion>> year he moved from mecca to madina  Side: Christians believe in one god>> god of israel>> a triune god o Muhammad comes to madina and in 662 history starts for the muslims o Madina: o Oasis: there’s agriculture o It’s multi-tribal o There’s pagan arabs and arab-jews o The arabs of madina were different from arabs in mecca>> they believe people speak the truth>> people don’t make up prophecies>> o Multi-tribal in the city caused conflicts>> created wars so people thought they couldn’t solve their problems them selves.. so muhammad came o He was an arbitrer>> who was going to keep the peace in the city o Know about muhammad from the kuran o Constitution of madina:  He writes a document and it has survived o DESCRIBE THE MAJOR TEACHINGS OF M. IN MECCA o Discuss the contents of madina o M>> monotheism and building state o Community>> a new umma nation>>faith>> he declared all the signatures>> a community separated from others>> carries the duty of the tribe>> protection of person but a revenge of killers.. then it defines transgrational punishment (13) (for murder and theft>> will hold that person responsible>> give them up(before with the tribe no one could give up anyone) but muhammad dismantled the tribal system>>he’s declaring a law above and beyond that’s human)>> he declares peace to be universal and one (17) ( we are an athority that keeps order)>> security is one ( as a member of this community you can’t fear for your life)>>> declared the treaty to be an alliance of defense (18) >> he sees quraysh as an enemy..wants mecca back (20)>> everyone in this community is equal >.egalitarian (22) o Jews are part of the umma>> helpers (37) o Madina is a sanctuary meaning it’s holy>> as good as mecca o No one can give protection to quraysh o Part of the desert was Hopitality/ protection Nov 26th  Paul onwards and today’s lecture is included on test 2  Muhammad/quraysh>> mecca and madina  There was a kaaba that’s still standing. There was 4 holy months>> do trade  Nomadic >>it was the tribe that controlled arabia.  610 c.e of the common era>>starts 3500 b.c.e before the common era.  Hear arabs as nomads  Christian paradime >>a man usually a monk would march up north or east
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