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RLG100 Complete Exam Review.doc

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Department
Religion
Course
RLG100Y1
Professor
Andre Maintenay
Semester
Winter

Description
1 RLG 100Y Major Religious Traditions, East and West RLG 280Y World Religions: A Comparative Study Study Terms for Final Exam. Western Religions Prophecy • people who were empowered by God to carry his message • part of the western religions’ common worldview • appear at critical moments to shape evolutions • express the idea that God is working and interested in activity of human beings and devoted to guiding humanity to good Monotheism • belief in the existence of only one God • part of the western religions’ common worldview • humans are made in the image of God • God is interested in our well being Judaism Covenant • an agreement or contract specifying exactly what human behaviour is acceptable to God and giving a divine mandate to the Israelites’ social laws • The central organizing concept in the Israelites’ religion • God and Abraham 1. Promise of decedents 2. Circumscions 3. Promise of land • The events which take place in regards to Judaism (both good and bad) are seen as punishment or reward for abiding by the covenants Diaspora • ‘dispersal’, the Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel ;it began with the 2 Babylonian Exile, from which not all the Jews returned in year 70 Hebrew bible- • Old testament • 24 books • Contains psalms • Contains 3 sections, the torah, nevi’im( all accounts of prophetic messages) and kethuvim(stories or creative literature) Babylonian exile • when Jews got exiled from the holy land • Began with the first King of Hebrews dying causing a split in Northern and southern sections • The southern section(Judea) by the Babylonians • Jews begin to introspect about sins • Evolution of synagogues • ( use terms such as synagogues and rabbinic Judaism) The second temple- • was destroyed and never rebuilt in 70 • See Babylonian exile, synagogues and rabbinic Judaism Haggadah/halakha- • Haggadah is the legal interpretations where as the hagadah is the literary strain that aims of teaching a lesson through stories. • Involved in Talmud Torah- • a word meaning ‘teaching’ or ‘instruction’; applied most specifically to the Law of Moses( the Pentateuch) but may also refer to the entire scripture, including commentaries, and even the entire spiritual thrust of Jewish religion Tanakh • the entire Hebrew Bible, consisting of Torah or law, Nebi’im or prophets, and 3 Ketuvim or sacred writings, and named as an acronym of these three terms Mishnah • the Hebrew summary of the oral law-inherited from Pharisaism and ascribed to Moses-arranged by topic; edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE, it has an authority paralleling that of the written Torah • Organized in six orders or divisions 1. Seeds (agriculture) 2. Festivals 3. Women 4. Damages (torts) 5. Holy Things (ritual) 6. Purifications • The Mishnah of Rabbi Judah the Prince and the Tofesa are of equal value in Tannaitic traditions( repeaters or teachers) • Claims of its authoritive nature stem from the belief that accompanying the 5 books ascribed to Moses was a another body of precedent interpretation passed down through oral traditions within moses’s bloodline Talmud- • commentary on the Mishnah • 2 different kinds • Consists of the Mishnah and a commentary called a gemarah • Gemarah is amaric not Hebrew like the Mishnah • Records arguments of more then 2000 sages about ways to resolve issues of the Mishnah • Strictly legal • Sometimes led to halakha, a prescription or answer as to how to live your life 4 Midrashim • commentary on the scripture Synagogue • the local place of assembly for congregational worship, which became central to the tradition after the destruction of the Jewish temple • In greek means assembly or gathering • Symbolized Jews being able to worship anywhere as opposed to once being only able worship revolving around a central temple • Established after the destruction of the first temple in 586 bce • By the second and third centuries, synagogues began taking an architectural frame consisting of prayers towards the destroyed temple, east • Consisted of permanently housed Torah scrolls • The use of the menorah, seven branched candle stick, dates back to temple times Rabbinic Judaism • after the destruction of the temple, temple practices such as animal sacrifice disappeared from Jewish life • Pharisees disappeared but Phasitic practice refurbished • Was not a hereditary movement in that anyone with the required education was entitled to interpret the law • Consisted of Yochanan ben Zakkai, getting permission to move Jewish circles to Yavneh • Emphasized new attention to practices within our daily lives • Geared towards ‘acts of lovingkindness’ • Rabbis’ emphasis on close textual analysis ensured that the community’s traditions were carefully recorded and preserved Rabbi • a teacher, in Roman times an expert on the interpretation of torah; since priestly 5 sacrifices ceased with the destruction of the temple, the rabbi has been the scholarly and spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation • Successors to the Pharisees after the destruction of the temple • Means great one, leader or ,as it appears in the New Testament, master Sephardim/Ashkenazim • Premodern world Judaism – divided geographically into 2 groups – Sephardim in the south Mediterranean region and Ashkenazim to the north central and eastern European regions • Sepharad was identified with Spain; Portugal became centre of Sephardic intellectual life • Ashkenazim idenfied with Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Russia; because they were living as a minority under Christian denomination, they were subject to ignorance and persecution Hellenization • Classified as the Hellenistic-Hasmonean Period • Persian Empire conquered by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE Greek became the dominant language • Bible was translated into Greek • “race of philosophers” • Apion (Hellenistic educator) introduced anti-Semitism Zionism • The modern movement to return to the ancient land of Israel, to found a nation there on the modern European model • Founder – Theodore Herzl • Believed that a legitimate Jewish state would have to await the coming messianic age • Important to almost all Jewish people – even Jews without religious sentiments may still feel ethnically or nationall attached to Israel and may consider its existence to be important to Jewish identity Moses Maimonedes • Most important Jewish philosopher • Called “Rambam” • Wrote Mishnah Torah • Wrote “Guide of the Perplexed” – a guide to aid those who questioned truth of own religion and discusses meaning of commandments and God’s providence • Has deep knowledge of Aristotlianism 6 • Wanted to demonstrate that world is God’s free creation out of nothing • Tried to resolve tension between faith and knowledge • Believed commandments were rational in principle • Because true morality is truly rational, the more we train and use our rational faculties, the more moral we become and the more we can be guided by God’s special providence • Promoted rational understanding of Judaism Saadia ben Joseph • Lived 882-942 • Principle of rabbinic academy of Sura in Babylonia • Wrote “The Book of Beliefs and Opinions” – Judaism is divinely revealed truth • Revelation and reason are in agreement but revelation is preferable • Jewish philosopher of Medieval period Hasidism • “pious ones” • applied to two unrelated groups of pious people  Jews who resisted Hellenism militarily in 2 century BCE Palestine & mystically incline followers of Baal Shem Tou in 18 century Poland and their descendents today • believe that the best way of communicating with God is through humility, good deeds, prayer and joy Sects of Judaism • Essenes o Produced Dead Sea Scrolls o Lived in preparation for Messiah’s coming o Has strong belief in Apocalypse o Concerned wit deterioration of society (bathed often, followed Sabbath) o Removed selves from society to live authentically • Sadducees o Aristocratic, elite o Wealthy o Literalists when it came to Bible, but culturally open to everything else o Influences especially by Greeks • Pharisees o “middle class” o teachers, rabbis, extremely pious o taught oral and written Torah o emersed selves in studious scriptural work – found in synagogues o strict on purity • Zeolots o Refused to live under Roman occupation (after Greeks) 7 o 66 BCE – had a revolution against Romans – Romans won o most radical sect • Christians o Part of “Jesus Movement” o Were Jews who converted to Christianity Apocalyptic Consciousness • Influenced by the Dark Period of Judaism • During this period, start to see yearning for a Messiah to deliver Jews from problems (messianism) • Apocalyptic scriptures were created during this time, anticipating the end of the world Zealots • See “Sects of Judaism” Essenes • See “Sects of Judaism” Christianity Holy Roman Empire • The empire set up in western Europe following the coronation of Charlemagne as emperor in the year 800. It was created by the medieval papacy in an attempt to unite Christendom under one rule. At times the territory of the empire was extensive and included Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of Italy and the Netherlands. Orthodox Christianity • A separate sect of Christianity resulting from the Great Schism in 1054 • Operates independently from Europe • Splits from the Roman Catholic Church • Called Eastern/Byzantine Christianity • Added the filioque to their Creed o Question as to whether the Holy Spirit eminates from God or Son and God. They added “and the Son” to their creed without discussing with the Western Church • Has different doctrine that Western Christianity – favours use of icons and therefore develops different style of worship • Orthodox does not accept pope as spiritual authority • Has fewer dogmas than Western Church Nicene Creed • Created at the Council of Nicea in 325, but ratified in its present form in 381 • Reflects the emergence of the Trinity – that God had three manifestations – father, 8 son and Holy Spirit • Creed of Christianity – allows Christians to understand themselves and their beliefs about Jesus and God and the world Paul • Sophisticated Jewish Pharisee from Tarsus • Persecuted Christians • Experienced an encounter with Jesus post-ressurection on the road to Damscus – changed his life and converted to Christianity • Preached about how Jews and Gentiles could all be heirs of Jesus’ kingdom • Wrote to churches in Greece and Rome – earliest Christian literature • Salvation message – only through faith in Jesus and divine grace can one be saved • “life in the spirit” – difference between flesh and spirit • died at age 65 – killed by Roman Emperor Nero as part of his persecution of Christians • principle influence in early Church – not an apostle Pauline Christianity • term used to refer to the Christianity associated with the beliefs and doctrines espoused by Paul of Tarsus through his writings. Most of orthodox Christianity relies heavily on these teachings and considers them to be amplifications and explanations of the teachings of Jesus. • Political characteristic - method of taming a dangerous sect among radical Jews and making it palatable to Roman authorities • Theological characteristics - The theological aspect is the claim that Paul transmuted Jesus the Jewish Messiah into the universal (in a wider meaning "catholic") Saviour. Pauline theology is also a term referring to the teaching and doctrines especially espoused by the apostle Paul through his writings. Major Schism in Church • Advent of Protestant reformation • People criticized veneration of saints and relics • People felt that the Church has been corrupted; alliance between Papacy and political institutions is too tight (therefore, unholy) • Voices of dissent and critique of practices Church has become involved in o Selling and buying of clerical offices • Development of urban middle class (educated ones at that; cities have greater access to education; economic changes – larger sector of society held wealth) • Popes threw themselves to the culture of a humanism – appreciation of the arts, various types of culture  accumulated wealth to refurbish basilicas and cathedrals  Sistine Chapel • Also threw Papacy to worldly affairs  sources of critique by ordinary, pious 9 people • Various figures formulated these critques – not successful  herretics • First major person whose critique stuck – German Priest – Martin Luther Major Schism in Church - East/West – FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE: 5 th CENTURY • Varieties of Christianity - Europe - “Western Christianity, LATIN” and Turkey - “Eastern Christianity, GREEK” • Each had similar doctrines, but as time passed significant differences developed between the two - caused a split or separation in year 1054 in the church • Western Church/Latin Church • Church of Rome comes to claim a certain prominence due to its association with the Martyrdom of Peter - site blessed by Jesus for the core of Christianity • Latin ‘papa’ = pope • Adopted the same pattern of governance as prevailed in the secular Roman empire - hierarchy • After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th Century, Europe falls in disarray and the church therefore develops greater importance in forming a sense of stability • 8th Century - development of a centralized European leadership, Charlemagne, who united significant parts of Europe, and was crowned by the pope as the Holy Roman Empire - 800 CE • The next 700 years or so = inflation in the interest in the Church/political leaders • Dark ages of Europe/Christianity - many scandals in which there are multiple popes operating at the same time, popes who move the institution from and back to Rome, popes who father children • Eastern Church/Byzantine Church/Orthodox Church - operates independently of the stuff going on in Europe • Splits from Western in year 1054 forming to difference branches of the Church • Question debated - Did the Holy Spirit emanate only from God or from God and the Son? • Eastern Church doesn’t recognize the authority of the pope as it is run by a body of bishops who approve the official dogma of the Church - has fewer dogmas to begin with • Various kinds of differences ultimately develop between the two sections of the Church Crusades • Islam started in 7C, hundreds of years after Muhammad’s death • Took over land controlled by Byzantine empires • Considerable amount of concern rose • Christians views holy land as being their religious right; same with Islam 10 • Falls under control of Islam – Christian expectations of access to Holy Land changes • All the way through, Islam had respect for peoples of the book (Jews, Christians) • Therefore, allowed safe passes  pilgrimage not an issue • Changes element of respect and tolerance, political ascension of Turks of Holy Land in 11C • Pope Irvan II – 1095C – Crusades – march of the faithful to Jerusalem (Holy Land) – response is tremendous – appealed by rewards in afterlife, title of martyr • Lasted several centuries – taken as “Holy War” • Military set up small states, initial success – manage to take Jerusalem and hold it for 100 years • There were four (4) major crusades • Crusades – main political and religious event; shaped medieval Europe (poetry); nationalism rose • Crusades reflected idea that Christians had rightful claim to Holy Land (early form of colonialism) • Also left big disaster: Jewish people suffered • Left a lasting legacy of mistrust between Christianity and Islam Sources for Accounts of Jesus’ Life • 100 CE: Accounts of Jesus’ life is collected into new kind of Scripture called the New Testament o New Testament – Gospels represent Jesus’ personage o 4 CE: Canon of Christian Scripture is established; Church limits Gospel and formalizes Canon of Bible  Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John – four because it is a relatively sufficient, represents four corners of the Earth, contains elements which capture core beliefs and account of resurrection o 4 CE: Apocrypha – all the other Gospels • Primary sources are biographical narratives called Gospel • Main representatives: Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John (accounts are based on older accounts of Jesus’ life that existed in early oral history) • Q Gospel – written account of Jesus’ sayings collected into one document (translated to Greek) • Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John reproduced Jesus’ sayings word for word o M.M.L.J were not members of Jesus’ inner circle (they were not friends of Jesus, therefore relied on oral tradition) • Aramaic – language spoken by Jesus and his companions • Gospel of Mark (written 30-35 years after Jesus’ death) o Earliest and shortest gospel (64 CE); simplest and most straightforward Gospel o Based on recollection of St. Peter (Mark wrote Gospel in Rome) o Mark begins Gospel with John the Baptist (leader of a desert-based 11 movement), who performs the ritual of baptism (ritual by which a person is initiated into the Christian community; immersed in water  cleansing from sin) on Jesus o Jesus goes into a 40-day retreat in a desert and wrestles with Satan (God’s arch-enemy) o Jesus establishes his ministry in region of Galilee; proclaims that Kingdom of God is at hand. His local reputation grows and spreads as he performs healing miracles o When he is challenged for picking grain and healing the sick on the Sabbath, he takes the notion of Jewish legal authority into his own hands; says that the Sabbath is made for the people rather than people for the Sabbath (Mark suggests that this is what caused the Jewish priests to conspire to get rid of him) o Jesus selects a group of 12 to form an inner circle of disciples who accompany him as he heals, teaches, and challenge religious authority o In one week Jesus: 1) celebrates Passover with his disciples, 2) is betrayed by Judas (a disciple), 3) is arrested and brought to trial before Pontius Pilate (Roman Governor), 4) sentenced to crucifixion when he does not deny that he is the king of the Jews (buried in a tomb that is sealed with a large stone; the day after the Sabbath, three women find the stone rolled away and the body missing) o Appeals to Jewish audience • Gospels of Luke and Matthew are longer • Gospel of Matthew o Begins with genealogy of Jesus as the descendant of King David (through Joseph, husband of Mary) o Tells that Mary conceived Jesus by the Holy Spirit, before her marriage to Joseph (birth of Jesus is a fulfillment of the prophecy in Isaiah 7 – “behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel” (only Luke and Matthew are the only New Testament sources for this doctrine) o Appeals to Jewish audience – use of language • Gospel of Luke o Recounts events in Jesus’ life before baptism, anticipated birth of John the Baptist and Jesus o Luke tells that that Jesus is born in Bethlehem; angels (divine messengers) announced birth to field of shepherds and shepherds went to pay their respects o Gives more detail than Mark regarding the trial and crucifixion of Jesus  Pontius Pilate declares Jesus innocent of any crime but yields to mod pressure to execute him anyway; after discovery of the empty tomb, Jesus appears among his followers and speaks to them o Appeals to Gentile (non-Jewish) audience - leaves out concepts non familiar to Jews • Luke and Matthew borrow a lot from Mark 12 o Ie. Matthew borrowed 601 verses from Mark o Ie. Luke’s Greek seems to be better than Mark’s • Matthew and Luke give account of Jesus’ miraculous virgin birth; concentrate on divine characteristics of Jesus’ messianism  Jesus is fulfillment of Jewish prophecy of Messiah redeeming humanity • The Gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the synoptic gospels because they give a unified vision of Jesus’ life and work • Gospel of John o John’s purpose is to express concern on the assertion of the cosmic significance of Jesus’ life and declare Jesus as messiah and savior (Jesus is the incarnation (embodiment of the divine in human form) of Logos (God) for the sake of humanity) o Gospel of John is written 70+ years after Jesus’ death o Focuses on mystical reading of Jesus’ life  theological implications of Jesus’s life and death o Language based on metaphors o Charts a path of faith, questions salvation Jesus • There are 2 billion Christians all over the world • Centered around Jesus (very little objective about Him) • Jesus: o Jewish o Baptized at 30 years old (by John the Baptist) o Grew up in Nazareth o Popular belief is that Jesus was born on December 25 (Christians) and January 6 (Armenian) o Comes from a large family – six (6) siblings (later on considered to be cousins) o Learned stone crafting, carpentry o Joined John the Baptist  desert prophet, itinerant preacher; preached importance of being ready for Messiah’s coming • Period in history when Palestine and Israel was governed by Romans – Palestine & Israel became nationalistic; wanted to regain independence from Romans • Jesus starts preaching, wandered the area, and gathered followers • Jesus was a charismatic man who was gifted in the use of parables and metaphors to present ideas • At age 33 he went to Jerusalem where he was executed by Romans by being nailed to the cross (common punishment at that time) • Jesus belonged to the Messianic age of Judaism (which rose from the Babylonian exile) • Messianic Jews expected their savior to be a political leader; a descendant of the line of David; a powerful military and spiritual kind of leader 13 • Jesus did not introduce anything new. He preached that the Kingdom of Heaven would come in his own time and that we must prepare • Jesus’ and John the Baptist’s ideas are of Jewish framework • Jesus was a man of his time • All different sects of Judaism believed their definition of the truth is right, which resulted in the different sects o Christianity (as a sect of Judaism) – same practices as Essenes (belief in the Holy Spirit, communal living) • Jesus’ ethical teachings come from the Hebrew Bible Jesus Movement • Paul – born as Saul – Pharisee (devout Jew in Turkey) o Paul had a reputation to maintain and protect Jewish community from splitting into different sects; major architect of Christianity; most influential leader in early Jesus Movement o Originally a persecutor of Jesus Movement (came into conflict with early followers of Jesus Movement) o Travelled and wrote correspondents; on his way to Damascus to persecute Christians there, he experienced a personal encounter with Jesus that re- oriented his life (conversion: spiritual re-birth) o Mission was to extend Christianity to Gentiles (Non-Jews) o Paul carried correspondence with the scattered communities of Christian converts in places like Corinth and Rome in letters (contained personal greetings, liturgical blessings, questions on theology)  earliest Christian literature o Paul refers to himself as the apostle to the gentiles; opposes view that in order to follow Jesus, one must become a Jew, be circumcised (if male), and follow dietary laws and other commandments o Dies in the year 65; legacy – establishment of Christian communities in many of the port cities of the Roman Empire • Christianity  splinter sect of Judaism; was viewed as threat to Jewish community by Jews • In 340 CE, Jewish Community was not receptive to Christian messages. So Paul would travel to another Gentile community in another town and gather at a Synagogue (Greeks were a large bulk of followers) • Major question: to what extent was it necessary to be Jewish to be Christian? • Exceptions: Converts to Christianity did not need to be circumcised, observe dietary laws  Christian break from Jewish Community crystalized in second century  Jewish community rebelled against Roman Empire  Bar Kochba Revolt (132 CE) • Christians were not able to receive some privileges that the Jewish community were able to negotiate with the Roman authorities • Christians were persecuted by Romans for being secretive, not participating in grand festivals of Romans (Rome was very communal), did not honor emperor of 14 Rome as God • Heresies – false doctrine • Different groups and opinions emerged  Was Jesus God, human, or a combination of both? o Flesh corrupts spirit o If body is illusory, how can we take Jesus’ suffering seriously? • Creedal Statement– statement of beliefs; must be accredited by Apostles (immediate companions of Jesus)  Apostle’s Creed • Nicene Creed – basic Christian doctrines • 2-4 CE: issue with definition of believe and authority of Hebrew Bible over Christians Monasticism • Existed from the early ages of Christianity, but was minimal - small amount of people heading out into the wilderness to live lives of poverty to simplicity - removed from worldly concerns - attempting to achieve a conversation with God • 5th Century - formal monastic orders that develop and persevere through the Middle ages • Benedictine Order • Benedict - Italian Monk, lived from middle of 5 to middle of 6 century, and established a pattern for Christian Monasticism • Monks and nuns undertook spiritual vows to conduct themselves with exceptional discipline to devote themselves to study and prayer and also to community work • Attempt to reclaim the simplicity of “Original Christianity” in hopes of gaining a closer relationship with God - as Jesus lived Monasteries • Monasteries – turned into universities, escape for men and women who did not wants to marry • Attracted all sorts of people • Admired in power structure of the Church – had to get Orthodox approval of teachings in study of religion – had to reflect Church  cannot be radical • Monastery is the wing of the Church • Monasteries- central to propagation for the inquisition (ie. Dominican order – given responsibility to lead inquisition)  questions heresy Excommunication • Marcion – draughtsman whose blueprint was rejected; son of a bishop; wealthy shipowner from Sinope • Teachings led to his excommunication (formal expulsion) from the church in 144 (however, he continued to advocate his teachings despite expulsion) • Marcion’s teachings reflected Paul’s teachings – Paul’s contrast between law 15 gospel becomes for Marcion a contrast not only between the Old and New Testaments but between two distinct deities • For Marcion, the creator God of Hebrew scriptures is what he calls the “Demiurge” (stern, fearsome, cruel deity); Jesus reveals a different God, a God of love and mercy, whose purpose is to overcome the Demiurge  God revealed by Jesus should replace the Hebrew God. Thus, Marcion reasoned, that the OT books should be excluded from Christian scriptures, except for the Gospel of Luke and some of Paul’s letters • Marcion’s canon was rejected because the church needed the OT to justify its claims to historicity Inquisition • Result of heretics in the church th • In the beginning of the 13 century, bishops were instructed to carry out ‘episcopal inquisitions’ in their dioceses to turn offenders over to secular authorities for punishment • In the 1230s a special institution was established specifically to identify and prosecute heretics • Mostly staffed by Dominicans, the papal Inquisition was particularly active in SW France • In 1252, Pope Innocent IV stipulated that torture could be used and that heretics handed over to secular authorities should be executed within 5 days • Inquisition was most brutal in Spain, where Ferdinand and Isabella used it to specifically target those Jews and Muslims who converted to Christianity in order to avoid expulsion (2000 executions took place) Augustine • 354-430; born in what is now known as Algeria • Son of a pagan father and a Christian mother; his mother Monica tried to raise him a sincere Christian but he sowed his wild oats in his student years, even having a child by his common-law companion • Studied classical philosophy and Neo-Platonism • Between the ages 20-30, he turned to Manichaeism – an intensely dualistic religion that grew out of Gnosticism. In 386, he experienced a dramatic conversion and embraced Christianity  became a priest and became the bishop of Hippo in North Africa • He campaigned actively against heresy • His Christian writings included the struggle between good and evil, spirit and mater; Augustine’s ideas concerning human dependence on divine grace shaped medieval Christianity’s view of the human self and personality • Best known book called Confessions Mendicant Order • Franciscans 16 o St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) o Grew up ass the son of a wealthy cloth merchant in central Italy, but re- thought his priorities when he was ill in his twenties o On a pilgrimage to Rome he was so moved by the beggars outside St. Peter’s Cathedral that he changed places and clothing with them for a day, which he spent begging o Returning to Assisi, he began ministering lepers and repaired a run-down church o Francis’ rule of life, which emphasized poverty, received papal approval in 1209 Rule of St. Benedict • Fundamental to the definition of monastic life • Instructions for community religious life that he established concerned spiritual discipline as well as such practical matters as economic self-sufficiency The Protestant Principle: - Argued that the New Testament contains the essentials of Christianity in belief and practice, and therefore we need only to focus on this for guidance and do away with any other alterations. - Return to the centrality of Jesus, all the other saints are merely a distraction. Faith is relics, saints, Mary all boarders on superstition. - Need to accept the importance of faith, only faith can redeem us before god and bring us righteousness and salvation. We must develop a direct relationship with god, clergy, ministers are not needed, one can do it themselves. Idea that the Holy Spirit helps each believer make the right decisions about the meaning of the passages in the Bible. - The Protestant Principle: the idea that each believer is guided by the Holy Spirit. Martin Luther: - Born 1533 in Germany. - Son of middle class parents, Martin educated and attended schools and universities in a pursuit of following his father’s wishes: for him to become a lawyer. - Luther caught in a storm, promise to St. Ann if he survives, he does. Joins a monastery and becomes a monk and begins theological education. - Becomes a critic of church practice. Two which anger him: Practice of Simony: buying and selling church offices. Practice of Indulgences: collect revenue for particular projects which the church committed itself to. Based on the idea that in order to be a good Christian, faith in God is not enough, one must enact good works and engage in charitable practices: this devolved into a pattern where one showed their charity was to donate money to the church, this would buy the release of your soul from purgatory after you die. Also you can release the souls of your loved ones who have passed away. - Luther was angered by this and it prompted him to compose a list of criticism about the church: 95 points called the 95 Theses. He posted them on the door of a Church on 31 st October 1550. - Age of the printing press, printed leaflets and distributed them in Germany. Within 2 months, spread across Europe. 17 - Church is angry, but at first they give him a way to recant his views. However he publically burns this letter. - He is then called into a forum to recant his views, however he refuses and is excommunicated from the church. He is supposed to be taken captive and imprisoned but he gets kidnapped and disappears for a year. Kidnapped by one of his supporters, Prince Frederick of Wittenberg and hides him in his castle. Luther reflects on what happens to him, writes more things, translates bible into German in order to make it more accessible to ordinary people. When he emerges from hiding, he is seen as a hero by many. - After this, Christianity divides. Various princes align themselves with either the Roman Catholic Church, or Luther and various other reformers who represent the Protestant position. Splintering not only of Christianity in the western world, but also a splintering of the political institution of the Holy Roman Empire. Period of conflict. Emperor Constantine: -Major historical agent. If he formally converted to Christianity is a point of debate, but his mother and grandmother converted to Christianity, he was sympathetic to it. He not only reversed some of the laws to Christianity, but formally issued an edict of toleration in 313 which gave the Christians ability to practice their religion and therefore he supported Christianity throughout his rule. - In his leadership, Christianity blossomed and successive emperors maintained this religion. It became the official religion of the Roman Empire. Theodisus the 1 officially established Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire. - Christianity now became a way to get ahead politically and socially. Once illegal, it was now officially supported and the establishment of churches and the attendant arts flourished (music, architecture etc.). Theology, Emperors would support theological councils where Christianity could be debated and formalised. Christianity soon spread through Europe, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, Africa. Islam Ummah: - Ummah is an Arabic word meaning "community" or "nation". Muhammad laid the foundations of a community (ummah) that was ideally to be a religious community. Five Pillars of Islam: - This is a part of Din (practice). The practice of Islam is built upon 5 pillars (foundational principles). 1. Shahadah: to bear witness, an affirmation of the creed e.g. I bear witness that there is no God but God. Mohammed is the messenger of God. The single thing that makes one a Muslim. The Affirmation of oneness of God and Mohammed as a witness. 2. Salat: Daily prayer. Pray 5 times a day, the call to prayer is announced from a Mosque and day to day Muslims pray at home but on Friday they pray in the Mosque. They turn to the Mecca to prey. Why they pray 5 times: God calls Mohammed up to heaven, on his way down he runs into Moses. 3. Zakat: arms giving or philanthropic practices, Muslims are acquired to give 2.5% of their total wealth to the community. Religious obligation. This helps the poor. This 18 institutionalizes the value of the responsibility for the less fortunate. You are responsible for your neighbor. 4. Ramadan: month of fasting are required to fast for 30 days of the year. Set on lunar calendar. Muslim’s refrain from smoking, drinking, eating, sex in daylight hours. People wake up very early to eat. Purpose of fasting is supposed to sensitize you to the suffering of the underprivileged. Eid al fiter, celebration. Great feast of food and acts of charity. 5. Haj pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Transformative experience. Haj institutionalizes and attempts to replicate the journey of Abraham and Ismail to Arabia. Medina: - In 622 the Prophet was invited to arbitrate between two feuding tribes in the city of Yathrib, 400km north of Mecca. Muhammed migrated to Yathrib (Hijrah), which then became known as the ‘city of the Prophet’ or Medina ‘the city’, and marked the beginning of community life under Islam and thus of Islamic history. - The Prophets migration also marks the beginning of the dating system used throughout the Muslim world, in which the years are counted backwards or forwards from that event and accompanied by the abbreviation AH, dating for ‘year of the hijrah’. - In Medina, Muhammad established the first Islamic commonwealth: a truly theocratic state, headed by a prophet believed to be ruling in accordance with the dictates of a divine scripture. - Medina was an oasis city with an agricultural economy. Its social structure far more heterogeneous than Mecca’s, including a substantial Jewish community as well as two hostel tribes, the Aws and the Khazraj (which Muhammad united). - In a brief constitutional document known as the covenant Medina, Muhammad stipulated that all the people of the city should henceforth be one Muslim commonwealth. The covenant grated the Jews full religious freedom and equality with the Muslims, on the condition that they support the state and not enter into any alliance against it. - In the Qur’an the people of Medina are called Ansar (helpers) because they were the first supports and protectors of Islam and the Prophet. Mecca: - The idea of a prophet – nabi, was not unfamiliar to Muhammad’s people. For twelve years Muhammad the Prophet of Allah preached the new faith in the One God to his people with little success. The Meccans did not wish to abandon the ways of their ancestors, a
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