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World Religions Test 2 Review.docx

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Arti Dhand

World Religions Test 2 Review: The Gospels -means ‘good news’ -written by Mark, Matthew, Luke and John and they make up first part of the New Testament -accounts of Jesus’life in the 1 century CE -collected and translated into Greek -contain the basic principles of Christianity -beginning of the Christian tradition -discuss Jesus’birth, death and resurrection -contribute to the changing relationship that humanity has with God -goes from one of fear and obedience in the Old Testament to one of love and mercy in the New Testament -God floods the earth in the OT but in the NT Jesus preaches that he loves everyone and we are all one under him -OT stress on rituals and work to show commitment to God (God wanted Abraham circumcised to show his commitment) -Gospels say circumcision is no longer a necessary act -less emphasis on pleasing God with actions and greater emphasis on pleasing God with faith alone Synoptic Gospels-The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to specifically as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording (thought that they are so similar because Matthew and Luke have used Mark as a source in their own writing) -also believed that Matthew and Luke drew info from another hypothetical text called Q which we do not have -the Triple Tradition (material included in all 3 gospels) -stand in contrast to Gospel of John whose content is comparatively different Paul -devoted Jew belonging to Pharisee sect -early persecutor of Jesus movement -had a vision of Jesus while on his way to Damascus and became a supporter -known as the architect -responsible for the spread of Christianity -extended Christianity to gentiles -Jewish communities were not receptive to his message of Jesus so he went and preached to gentiles (people who were not Jewish) -made Christianity more appealing by determining to what extent to retain certain observances and practices -no more circumcision or purity laws -salvation not attained through obedience to certain laws but instead through faith in Jesus -letters he wrote were the earliest forms of Christian literature -since they were written before the Gospels -travelled around in order to spread the movement that Jesus had started, based on the teachings of Jesus Desert Fathers-1 Christian monks (Paul the Hermit,Antony of Egypt, Paphnutius Pachomius, Simon Stylite -hermit monks Benedict of Nursia-founder of Western Monasticism -went to live in a cave, movement attracted much attention and many followers, built monastery in Southern Rome -Benedictine Order -his Rule for Monks became the organizing principles for all of Western Monasticism -opposed excess of any kind -should stay at one monastery -spend time in manual labour Martin Luther -German priest, greatly influenced byAugustine (1483-1546) -originally studying law but became a monk and began studying theology -created the Protestant branch of Christianity -reformers protested practices and doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church (ex: indulgences= way of buying God’s forgiveness so you could get a pass into heaven) -papacy asking for donations for the building of Saint Peter’s basilica in return donors would get indulgences -opposed idea that anything spiritual could be sold -believed the church to be corrupt -believed sacrifice of Jesus was enough to make up for all the wrongdoing on part of mankind -main focuses were Sola Scriptura (‘scripture alone’) and Sola Fides (‘faith alone’) -believed all people should have access to the scripture so they could read and interpret it for themselves -rejected church control of the interpretation of the Bible -a person only needs faith in Jesus alone to achieve salvation -1517: posted his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle church of Wittenberg -demands for reform and change within church -1521: excommunicated by Pope Leo X rd -could’ve been executed but was hidden by Prince Frederick the 3 of Saxony -translated New Testament into German -eventually rejected monasticism and celibacy -believed that there is nothing anybody can do to gain God’s mercy because it is already present -only way to kingdom of God is through Jesus Constantine -had a dream of Jesus (sees a cross in the sun, “if you follow the cross you will conquer”) -responsible for the Council of Nicaea (325 CE), the result of this council being the Nicene Creed -purpose was to determine the divinity of Jesus (human, God, or both?) -addressed the issue of the Trinity (3 manifestations of God-the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit) -Nestorian (Eastern, part of the Syrian tradition) Churches see the incarnate Christ as 2 separate person, one divine and one human -Greek and Latin churches see Christ with both a divine and human nature -it was thought than an agreement could be reached on this topic -removed persecution policy against Christians in Rome -313 CE Christians allowed to practice religion legally -allowed Christian symbols to appear on currency of Roman Empire -legitimized it Eastern Orthodox Church -spread in Russia, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, etc. -began in 330 CE -Byzantium (aka Constantinople) had become new capital of Roman Empire -Bishop of Constantinople held most influence in the East -this started a division between the Western and Eastern parts of the church -Western empire collapsed in 5 century and the Western church began to develop independently -Eastern Church spread its own form of Christianity until conquest by Muslims in the 15 century CE -accepted first 7 church councils (Nicaea, Chalcedon) -decisions concerning Christianity should be made collectively, only Church Councils are of ultimate authority -1054: disagreements brought the bishops of Rome and Constantinople to excommunicate each other (known as the Great Schism) -one issue was growing power of the pope Western focus: sins and death of Jesus Art-more on crucifixion Eastern focus: mystical self-transformation through contact with Christ Art- more on resurrection The Great Schism -1054 there a split in the Church -first section known as Eastern (Greek) Church, second known as Western (Latin) Church -major disagreement on the authority of the bishops -not everyone within the church agreed that the bishop of Rome was the most important -split shows the conflict that existed in the early church -institutional differences still exist today which influence the way worship is conducted -were disagreement between the 2 sides about the methods of worship and belief -Eastern Church wanted to be able to practice its culture and language -the Filioque Controversy -discussed at Council of Chalcedon which was a debate on the origins of the Holy Spirit -does the Holy Spirit just come from God or does it come from God and Son -Western Church believed it also to come from the son (Filioque= Latin, ‘and from the Son’) which the Eastern Church rejected -Western Church also didn’t like the use of icons in the Eastern Church -these difference between the 2 sects still influence the way worship is conducted today Protestant Reformation -took place in 16 century CE -reform Catholic Church in Western Europe -reformers eventually split off and became 4 major church tradition -Lutheran, Reformed/Calvinist/Presbyterian,Anabaptist,Anglican Lutheranism -hymns -songs -in German -enthusiasm for Bible -trust in God -Germany ScandinaviaBaltic States Calvinism -John Calvin (1509-1564) -saw human nature as basically sinful and drawn to evil -Predestination ones deeds will not lead to salvation or damnation, this has been decided before birth by God -Switzerland-Zwingli -great success in Geneva -removal of all statues and pictures from churches -ministers were not appointed by bishops but by councils from each congregation -this was a threat to political and religious leaders -sermon based with no bishops -John Knox (1514-1572), studied with Calvin -spread Calvinism into Scotland Anabaptist -‘rebaptizers’, baptising individuals who have already been baptised -believe that infant baptism is not valid -Sectarianism Anglican -English Protestants -Henry the 8 , 16 century -combination of reformation and tradition practices -dismantled papal power in Europe because they would not grant him a divorce -English translation of Bible Monasticism -spread northward from Egypt and Syria (Desert Fathers) -small part of early Christianity, became formal in 5 century -head off in desert to live their lives in poverty -founded by Benedict and may also be known as Benedictine Order -closely reflects life of Jesus in that he spent 40 days wandering the desert -seems to reclaim the simplicity of Christianity that seems to have been lost by the church -spread when Benedict’s sister, Sovashica, established a monastery for women -received lots of donations from the community because they were seen as pious -as a result became very wealthy and danger that it could lose its simplicity -money allowed for numerous libraries and universities to be built -also offered an escape for those who did not want to fit into society’s mould (aka women who did not want to marry) The Inquisition -things related to judgement of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church -church authorities set up organization to guarantee purity of Christian belief -aim was to root out variant forms of Christianity that were viewed as heretical -interrogated and if found guilty you were burned -first active in Southern France, later in Spain -13 century -acted as religious arm of the Spanish Gov’t Islam: Hijra -year 1 of Muslim calendar (it’s a lunar calendar) -marks Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina 622 CE -where his message was favourable received -also marks the start of the Muslim community -Islam becomes fastest growing religion in the world -gives Muslims a system of when to celebrate certain holidays -1 Islamic mosque in Yathrib (Medina) -3 most sacred cities of Islam= Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina -630 CE: Muhammad victorious, takes control of Mecca -destroy all images in the Kabah -institutionalize his religious ideals -took overArabia, had planned on Syria but died before he could complete this -Muhammad is the ideal human being, model for all believers Muhammad -founder of Islam -received revelations from theArch Angel Gabriel -received first on Mount Mira -born 570 CE into the Quraysh tribe of Mecca -most influential tribe in Mecca -died 632 CE in Medina -believed to be the last prophet of God -brought a new method of worship to his community -shift from polytheism and idolatry to monotheism and idolatry -elevated the status of women within the community -made practice of burying female babies in the sand alive forbidden -revelations in the Qur’an say women have the right to inheritance and to treat with the same respect/equality as the men in their lives -diplomatic skills able to solve conflicts between communities -622 CE resolved a dispute in Yathrib (later renamed Medina= city of the prophet) -said he would only solve the dispute if the tribes would accept Islam -tolerant towards other religious groups -Jews should be treated as equals as long as they do not enter into an alliance against the Muslims -established rituals so Muslims can learn to be close God Din (‘way of life’) -the practice of Islam is built on 5 foundational pillars 1) Shahadah -means to bear witness that there is only one God and that Muhammad is the prophet of God 2) Salat -daily prayer that is supposed to occur 5 times a day -pray in the direction of Mecca 3) Zakat -donate 2.5% of your wealth to the community to help the poor 4) Ramadan -month of fasting (from dawn until sunset of each day) -also time of piety and reflection of moral responsibility -at the end of Ramadan there is a 3 day celebration called Eid 5) Haj -take a pilgrimage to Mecca -if a person makes the journey their status in the community is elevated -living by these 5 pillars is essential to being a Muslim -must say the Shahadah in front of at least 2 Muslims in order to become a Muslim -how closely these pillars are followed will affect the judgment received by a Muslim on the Day of Judgement -living by these pillars emulates the life of Muhammad -helps a person achieve closeness with God -are a reflection of Islamic values -belief in welfare of the poor that’s why they donate 2.5% of income Imam -leader of the Muslim community -leads prayer in the Mosque - anointed through his connection with the HoM -Islam spli
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