Three characteristics to be considered a Je w:
1) Believe that there is one God who manifested h imself to Moses on Mount Sinai and revealed
2) Accept Five Books of Moses: The Torah is the first out of the five books of Moses that
additionally include Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
3) Considered as a historical continuation of th e people of Israel because the Christians believe
themselves to be the “True or New Israel.
Abraham: Abraham for whatever reas on is chosen in the Genesis Chapter 12 and God tells him to
leave his people to received new land (Israel).
David: Establishes the Temple and is the King. Also his descendant will be the Messiah for
Christianity. With David there is a period of monarchy a nd this temple becomes fundamental.
586 BCE The First Temple: The first temple was constructed by King Solomon based on a
detailed plan that God had given to hid father, King David. The Temple of King Solomon’s
Temple lasted 400 years until it was destroy ed by the Babylon. A standing army was formed and
the Persian Empire defeats Babylon and allowed Jews to build the Temple however did not allow
them to reconstitute the monarchy although it is part of the religion to have a King of David’s
decent. Thus the believe of the Messiah came to place, a person of Kind David’s decent who the
Jew’s are expecting to reinstitute the monarchy.
The Second Temple: Biblical Judaism’s writing is essentially up to the second temple. This is
centered on a divine sanctioned m onarchy around a temple and was destroyed in 70CE by the
Romans. The cult of the temple contained a Priest who did the functions of the temple, sacrificial
food and animals. But onwards to 70 CE, the answer to the destruction of the Second Temple is
The destruction of the Temple did not mean the end of Judaism as the holiness of Israel continues
in the people. The notion of “Am Yisrael,” takes place as the holiness that was centered in the
Temple has not endured the physical destruction, but live on in the people of Israel. This shows
that the end of sacrifice is essentially the start of something new that is given by God. God will
hold part of the bargain of keeping Israel as long as Israel keeps God. This is a significant
moment of the People of Israel as they remember that they do not need a Temple to serve God as
it is possible to serve God through good deeds and the study of the Torah.
Rabbinic Judaism: A response to the destruction of the second temple in 70 BCE, thus stating that
the holiness of Israel tradition is in the people “Am Yisrael.” Therefore serving God can be done
by 1) Living the way of Jewish law and 2) Studying the Torah. Rabbinic Judaism wrote new
books and the most fundamental one is the Torah.
Theology of Rabbinic J udaism: believes in one unique God and who is living and just.
• 1. God Formed creation according to plan. There is a meaning of this universe and it is
revealed through the Torah.
• 2. Rabbinic Judaism understands the creation of a perfect universe. A belief that this
world is good because God is good. God cares about the perfection and we are
responsible for that.
• 3. Human beings have been disrupted in the world by their disobedience. Human actions
disrupt perfection, our current state of state of exile is because we disobeyed and
disrupted the perfection of the world. Adam and Eve (Genesis 3) • Heal: God will ultimately restore the perfections of universe because Israel will repent
and God will keep his end of the bargain. God will gather his people and peace . Part of
the healing is that the people will be gathered by the Messiah (except the reformed Jews).
• When God fixes the world he will send the Messiah
Mishnah (around 150 to 200 BC ): The oral Torah after many generations becomes the Mishnah
but it’s not a holy book. Rather, it is the oral T orah that was not written down. Rabbi’s codify the
Mishnah written, written in Hebrew, as a digest of law. The principal message claims humanity as
the center of the universe/creation and therefore has the power to posses’ autonomy to initiate and
stop actions that cant sanctify or violate the world.
The Mishnah is divided into 6 chapters that include 1) Seeds and agriculture. 2) Appointed times,
festivals, and Holy Days. 3) Women, marriage and divorce. 4) Dama ges, criminal law, buying,
selling, torts. 5) Sanctities: services and scarifies in the temple. 6) P urity’s the law of rituals and
term nation. Notion of impurity is something looked down upon like a corpse, if you touch it you
The Mishnah: The Mishnah is a compilation of rabbinic teachings dated back to +/ -200 CE. It
was compiled as a response to the destruction of the 2 ndJewish Temple, as well as the end of the
Jewish monarchy and its presence in the land of Israel. Such a compilation wa s necessary since
the Temple in Jerusalem - the Centre of Jewish communal, ritual, legal, and ethical life - was no
longer. As such, the compilation of the Mishnah allowed for Jewish life to continue even without
the monarchy and Temple; that is, it propose d that each individual was responsible for his Jewish
identity and maintenance of the berit. It gave power to the people to themselves become holy,
important, and successful, close to God. There was no more need for a tangible space in a
tangible land, nor leader or monarch. The Mishnah now allowed for mobile observance,
specifically in exile. It assumed that the world had potential for perfection, specifically through
deed, i.e. observance of the Torah. It was such that most laws maintained in Jerusalem pr e-
destruction were s