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RLG100 Exam Notes - CHRISTIANITY.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George

CHRISTIANITY During the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE there were many Jewish sects formed and what united them together was the expectat ion that something cosmic was going to happen, the messiah will commence. Jesus was born at this period. Throughout the Christian world, the year reaches a climax towards the end of December, when the Christmas season marks the birth of the man Christian s believe to have been the incarnate son of God, the manifestation of divine nature and purpose in a human life. To identify oneself as a Christian is to declare Jesus the lord and saviour of the world. Jesus Jesus (also called Christ which means king or Messiah) was born in Israel 2000 years ago whose life is told by the Gospels . For his first thirty years, Jesus lived a traditional Jewish life, working as a carpenter. During this time, all of Israel was under Caesar's Roman dictatorship, including Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, and Nazareth to the virgin Mary, where he was raised. In his thirties, Jesus began his public teaching and display of recorded miracles, yet still never travelled more than 200 miles from his birthplace. Over a three year per iod, despite his efforts to keep a low profile, Jesus' reputation spread nation wide. The Roman governors and rulers of Israel's provinces and the leaders of the Jewish people took note of him. Jesus' key messages included the love and forgiveness from God , immense value of each other and the reality to heaven and hell. Jesus’ most controversial act was that we repeatedly claimed to be God, which was a direct violate of the Jewish law. Religious leaders then asked the Roman government to execute him. Acting as a scapegoat, Jesus was tortured and then hung by his hands, this method of execution restricted the airflow to his lungs, killing him in three hours. However, according to more than 500 witnesses, Jesus returned from the dead three days later, and ove r the next 40 days journeyed in both the southern and northern provinces of Israel. To many, this was conclusive proof that Jesus' claims to be God were real. Then Jesus returned to Jerusalem, the city where he was recently executed, and according to witne sses, he left the earth alive by rising up into the sky. As a result of these events, the number of his followers increased dramatically. Within 100 years, people throughout the Roman empire (Asia Minor, Europe) became followers of Jesus. Apostle Creed (early 150): Very early in his tory, the Church began composing creeds-statements of the content of Christian faith. The importance attributed to the creeds (from the Latin meaning belief) has a lasting influence on Christians understanding themselves as peo ple who believe Jesus or about God and the world. It is essentially a very short statement that in a nutshell describes of what Christians thought about Jesus. Firstly, it refers to Jesus as the Father/Son/Christ “ I believe in God, the Father almighty, ma ker of heaven and earth; and in Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary.” Mentioning Jesus’ pre -existence followed by his incarnation and resurrection, “suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucifie d, dead, and buried. He descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead” and ; he ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of God the Father almighty..” The Nicene Creed popped up and it was more specific than the Apostle. Paul (5 A.D – 67 A.D) Paul was a cosmopolitan figure with the privileged status of a Roman citizen. Paul was a Jew who had a theophenic experience by seeing the Risen Jesus appears to him and interrogating him for killing those who believed Jesus was the Messiah . This was the most fundamental moment in Paul’s life, it affirms to him that Jesus is the Messiah and that the Christian faith is true (1 Corinthians: Chapter 15; 3-9) He then began the preaching of Jesus while living in a moment where the early Christian community was radical, he saw salvation in a cosmic matter and it was apocalyptic. Paul’s teaching essentially was abandoning Jewish laws such as the issue of food, allowing Christians to eat pork although they come from an early set of Judaism. Also ab andoned circumcision and said you don't have to be Jewish to become Christian. Paul’s ideas or Pauline Ideas speaks to the Church as the body of Christ. He see’s marriage as a mutual decision and a submission of one. He taught freedom of consciousness where even the ill is informed, t his radical idea suggested that everyone is equal and has a right to their own opinion. Most fundamentally, Paul describes that love is over faith and hope and love is above all. Paul see’s justification by faith, as observan ce of rituals laws or correct moral conduct is not how salvation is attained but rather through the faith in Jesus. Throughout Paul’s life, he has written letters to Rome, which is fundamental letters on the theme of righteousness through faith and not th rough law. Paul’s neglecting of Jewish laws is that it lures one into self-righteousness, and this becomes the death of one, rather righteousness is a gift through Jesus. Goes against Mitzvah; good deeds so not justify you, it is a reflection of your goodness; it is not what actually makes you good. Because you belong to Jesus , you can do good. Martin Luther: Was an Augustan monk who objected to the Church’s practise of selling indulgences. He was didn't understand how many good deeds he would have to do u ntil he would be considered a good Christian. He discovered salvation by faith and goes against the Church selling indulgences as it corrupts Christianity, es sentially causing a religious war and massacre. His teachings: 1) Salvation is by grace only. It’s a matter of divine initiative. 2) You cannot quantify faith and salvation is not subjected to your good deeds. There is nothing you can do to earn salvation, it is only through faith. Protestant Reformation is the efforts of the self-described “reformers” who objected the doctrines, rituals, and structure of the Roman Catholics. Their essential teachings are sola scriptura (scripture only), sola fide (faith alone) the Priesthood of all believers, worship as radically transformed, and a new mode of statehood . 1) Sola Scriptura (Latin by scripture only): is a doctrine that the Bible contains all knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness. Sola scriptura demands only those doctrines are to be admitted or confessed that are found directly within or indirectly by using valid deductive reasoning from scripture. Sola scriptura is not a denial of other authorities governing Christian life and devoti on; it demands that all other authorities are subordinate to the written word of God. Sola scriptura was a foundational doctrinal principle of the Protestant Reformation held by the Reformers and is a formal principle of Protestantism today. Christians therefore have their own interpretatio
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