During the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE there were many Jewish sects formed and
what united them together was the expectat ion that something cosmic was going to happen, the
messiah will commence. Jesus was born at this period.
Throughout the Christian world, the year reaches a climax towards the end of December, when
the Christmas season marks the birth of the man Christian s believe to have been the incarnate son
of God, the manifestation of divine nature and purpose in a human life. To identify oneself as a
Christian is to declare Jesus the lord and saviour of the world.
Jesus (also called Christ which means king or Messiah) was born in Israel 2000 years ago
whose life is told by the Gospels . For his first thirty years, Jesus lived a traditional Jewish life,
working as a carpenter. During this time, all of Israel was under Caesar's Roman dictatorship,
including Bethlehem, where Jesus was born, and Nazareth to the virgin Mary, where he was
In his thirties, Jesus began his public teaching and display of recorded miracles, yet still
never travelled more than 200 miles from his birthplace. Over a three year per iod, despite his
efforts to keep a low profile, Jesus' reputation spread nation wide. The Roman governors and
rulers of Israel's provinces and the leaders of the Jewish people took note of him. Jesus' key
messages included the love and forgiveness from God , immense value of each other and the
reality to heaven and hell. Jesus’ most controversial act was that we repeatedly claimed to be
God, which was a direct violate of the Jewish law. Religious leaders then asked the Roman
government to execute him.
Acting as a scapegoat, Jesus was tortured and then hung by his hands, this method of
execution restricted the airflow to his lungs, killing him in three hours. However, according to
more than 500 witnesses, Jesus returned from the dead three days later, and ove r the next 40 days
journeyed in both the southern and northern provinces of Israel. To many, this was conclusive
proof that Jesus' claims to be God were real. Then Jesus returned to Jerusalem, the city where he
was recently executed, and according to witne sses, he left the earth alive by rising up into the sky.
As a result of these events, the number of his followers increased dramatically. Within 100 years,
people throughout the Roman empire (Asia Minor, Europe) became followers of Jesus.
Apostle Creed (early 150): Very early in his tory, the Church began composing creeds-statements
of the content of Christian faith. The importance attributed to the creeds (from the Latin meaning
belief) has a lasting influence on Christians understanding themselves as peo ple who believe
Jesus or about God and the world. It is essentially a very short statement that in a nutshell
describes of what Christians thought about Jesus. Firstly, it refers to Jesus as the
Father/Son/Christ “ I believe in God, the Father almighty, ma ker of heaven and earth; and in
Jesus Christ his only Son our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin
Mary.” Mentioning Jesus’ pre -existence followed by his incarnation and resurrection, “suffered
under Pontius Pilate, was crucifie d, dead, and buried. He descended into hell; the third day he
rose again from the dead” and ; he ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of God the
Father almighty..” The Nicene Creed popped up and it was more specific than the Apostle.
Paul (5 A.D – 67 A.D)
Paul was a cosmopolitan figure with the privileged status of a Roman citizen. Paul was a
Jew who had a theophenic experience by seeing the Risen Jesus appears to him and interrogating
him for killing those who believed Jesus was the Messiah . This was the most fundamental
moment in Paul’s life, it affirms to him that Jesus is the Messiah and that the Christian faith is true (1 Corinthians: Chapter 15; 3-9) He then began the preaching of Jesus while living in a
moment where the early Christian community was radical, he saw salvation in a cosmic matter
and it was apocalyptic.
Paul’s teaching essentially was abandoning Jewish laws such as the issue of food,
allowing Christians to eat pork although they come from an early set of Judaism. Also ab andoned
circumcision and said you don't have to be Jewish to become Christian.
Paul’s ideas or Pauline Ideas speaks to the Church as the body of Christ. He see’s
marriage as a mutual decision and a submission of one. He taught freedom of consciousness
where even the ill is informed, t his radical idea suggested that everyone is equal and has a right to
their own opinion. Most fundamentally, Paul describes that love is over faith and hope and love is
above all. Paul see’s justification by faith, as observan ce of rituals laws or correct moral conduct
is not how salvation is attained but rather through the faith in Jesus.
Throughout Paul’s life, he has written letters to Rome, which is fundamental letters on
the theme of righteousness through faith and not th rough law. Paul’s neglecting of Jewish laws is
that it lures one into self-righteousness, and this becomes the death of one, rather righteousness is
a gift through Jesus. Goes against Mitzvah; good deeds so not justify you, it is a reflection of your
goodness; it is not what actually makes you good. Because you belong to Jesus , you can do good.
Martin Luther: Was an Augustan monk who objected to the Church’s practise of selling
indulgences. He was didn't understand how many good deeds he would have to do u ntil he would
be considered a good Christian. He discovered salvation by faith and goes against the Church
selling indulgences as it corrupts Christianity, es sentially causing a religious war and massacre.
1) Salvation is by grace only. It’s a matter of divine initiative.
2) You cannot quantify faith and salvation is not subjected to your good deeds. There is
nothing you can do to earn salvation, it is only through faith.
Protestant Reformation is the efforts of the self-described “reformers” who objected the
doctrines, rituals, and structure of the Roman Catholics. Their essential teachings are sola
scriptura (scripture only), sola fide (faith alone) the Priesthood of all believers, worship as
radically transformed, and a new mode of statehood .
1) Sola Scriptura (Latin by scripture only): is a doctrine that the Bible contains all
knowledge necessary for salvation and holiness. Sola scriptura demands only those
doctrines are to be admitted or confessed that are found directly within or indirectly by
using valid deductive reasoning from scripture. Sola scriptura is not a denial of other
authorities governing Christian life and devoti on; it demands that all other authorities are
subordinate to the written word of God. Sola scriptura was a foundational doctrinal
principle of the Protestant Reformation held by the Reformers and is a formal principle of
Protestantism today. Christians therefore have their own interpretatio