Muhammed 570 (PBUH) – will be referred by M
The City of Mecca where M was born was dominated mainly by the Quraysh tribe but it was
open to a broad range of cultural and religious influences (Judaism + Christianity). Polytheistic
idols were in the Kaba and the Quraysh was respected because they were Quazi warriors. M was
born into the Quraysh Tribe around the year 570 and little is known about his youth but he was an
open taken care by his uncle Abu Talib and worked as a merchant for a weal thy widow Khadijah
who he got married to in his mid 20s. He his describes as contemplative, honest, and a mild -
Once a year during the month of Ramadhan, M spent days in seclusion in a cave in Mount Hira,
during one of those retreats, he rec eived the call to prophethood and the first revelation of Quran.
Angel Gabriel appears to him and commands him to recites the Shahada but the prophet exclaims
that he cannot read or write. Shivering with fear, he ran some and asked people to take care of
him. Khadija’s uncle said that M is a prophet and it is his mission to preach. For 12 years, M
preached the new faith in one God with little success. Meccans did not wish to abandon wither
ancestor ways and ignored him. His teachings was not only religious but it was moral and social.
He instructed Meccans to give alms, to care or orphans, feed hungry, assist to the oppressed (that
time there were slaves). Those who believed M took his path because of his reputation of being a
M preached that t he god of Islam is the God of Jews and Christians. This is a resurrection and all
humanities will be raised and judged on the Day of Judgment.
However, M failed to preach in Mecca as the Pagan we out to get him. There was an unbearable
gap between monotheism and polytheism but they could not kill him because his true blood was
of the Quraysh tribe and he was looked after by Abu Talib. M was a sensible man, he was the
type to be humiliates in front of a large city by the Quraysh but walked away without a w ord. He
was the one who would give up food for his own health to the poor, he was showing a path a
sincerity and love. When the year of Sadness came 619, the year that Kadijah and Abu Talib died,
M planned to escape to Madina with the knowledge that the Qu raysh would kill him. He escapes
to Madina in 622 during the night with a group of followers.
Once arrived in Madina in 622 (When Muslims start their calendar), it was a multi tribal place
where they had Pagan Arabs and Jewish Tribes. There were more incl ines to listen to M because
they were more familiar to monotheism. M came to Madina as part of an agreement to become an
arbiter, like a judge, to keep peace in the city. He established the first Islamic Common Wealth.
In a brief constitutional document known as the covenant of Medina, he stipulated that all the
people of the city should form a single Muslim common wealth. He granted Jews full religious
freedom and equality with the Muslims unless they support the Quraysh.
There have been a number of wars between the Muslims and the Meccans e.g. Battle by Mount
Uhuh and Battle of Trench where Muslims failed to prevail. The tension between Muslims and
Meccans rose but eventually the Quraysh reached truce. The Meccans surrendered two years after
the last battle and accepted Islam en masse. All enemies of tribes became brothers in faith and the
Prophet forgave them when he said “I will do with you to what Joseph did with his brothers. Go,
you are free.” He wages war and made peace. He laid foundations of a n Ummah and provided
sunnah, a way of life that reflected his own. Constitution of Medina: Is the first constitution of democracy in the history of constitutional
rule. Its principal were based on the Quran and sunnah. Equipped with these principals, the
prophet manages to establish the first Islamic state.
The constitution expressed that freedom; justice and equality were based on humanity itself
(article 15 and 17) Making it clear that Jewish and Christian are “Muslims constituting a political
unit of a new type, an umah or community.” The Jews and Christians were respectfully notes as
the “people of the books,” an ethnic minority made equal to the majority of the brotherhood.
The Constitution of Medina furthermore dismantles tribalism by creating a dominio n like the
Rome. This document carries the duties of a tribe, protecting a member and revenger of killers.
When anyone wrongfully kills a believer, he is liable to be killed in retaliation for him (article 21)
The Constitution fundamentally makes laws abo ve and beyond; transgressors will be punished,
we do not protect criminals. Holds criminals responsible for their own actions. However, there is
a big emphasis on peace as peace is declared one. The treaty furthermore becomes an alliance of
offense; he offered it to save peoples problems in return that they declare the Quraysh as an
enemy. “No neighborly protection is given to Quraysh and those who help him” (article 43)
Thus, the early model of an Islamic state Muhammad brought fashion citizens into a new social
and political unity, to maintain peace and cooperation, to protect the life and prosperity of all
citizens, to eliminate aggression and to ensure freedom of religion.
Five Pillars of Islam : The five pillars of Islam ar