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RLG100 Exam Notes - ISLAM.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George

ISLAM Muhammed 570 (PBUH) – will be referred by M The City of Mecca where M was born was dominated mainly by the Quraysh tribe but it was open to a broad range of cultural and religious influences (Judaism + Christianity). Polytheistic idols were in the Kaba and the Quraysh was respected because they were Quazi warriors. M was born into the Quraysh Tribe around the year 570 and little is known about his youth but he was an open taken care by his uncle Abu Talib and worked as a merchant for a weal thy widow Khadijah who he got married to in his mid 20s. He his describes as contemplative, honest, and a mild - mannered man. Once a year during the month of Ramadhan, M spent days in seclusion in a cave in Mount Hira, during one of those retreats, he rec eived the call to prophethood and the first revelation of Quran. Angel Gabriel appears to him and commands him to recites the Shahada but the prophet exclaims that he cannot read or write. Shivering with fear, he ran some and asked people to take care of him. Khadija’s uncle said that M is a prophet and it is his mission to preach. For 12 years, M preached the new faith in one God with little success. Meccans did not wish to abandon wither ancestor ways and ignored him. His teachings was not only religious but it was moral and social. He instructed Meccans to give alms, to care or orphans, feed hungry, assist to the oppressed (that time there were slaves). Those who believed M took his path because of his reputation of being a good person. M preached that t he god of Islam is the God of Jews and Christians. This is a resurrection and all humanities will be raised and judged on the Day of Judgment. However, M failed to preach in Mecca as the Pagan we out to get him. There was an unbearable gap between monotheism and polytheism but they could not kill him because his true blood was of the Quraysh tribe and he was looked after by Abu Talib. M was a sensible man, he was the type to be humiliates in front of a large city by the Quraysh but walked away without a w ord. He was the one who would give up food for his own health to the poor, he was showing a path a sincerity and love. When the year of Sadness came 619, the year that Kadijah and Abu Talib died, M planned to escape to Madina with the knowledge that the Qu raysh would kill him. He escapes to Madina in 622 during the night with a group of followers. Once arrived in Madina in 622 (When Muslims start their calendar), it was a multi tribal place where they had Pagan Arabs and Jewish Tribes. There were more incl ines to listen to M because they were more familiar to monotheism. M came to Madina as part of an agreement to become an arbiter, like a judge, to keep peace in the city. He established the first Islamic Common Wealth. In a brief constitutional document known as the covenant of Medina, he stipulated that all the people of the city should form a single Muslim common wealth. He granted Jews full religious freedom and equality with the Muslims unless they support the Quraysh. There have been a number of wars between the Muslims and the Meccans e.g. Battle by Mount Uhuh and Battle of Trench where Muslims failed to prevail. The tension between Muslims and Meccans rose but eventually the Quraysh reached truce. The Meccans surrendered two years after the last battle and accepted Islam en masse. All enemies of tribes became brothers in faith and the Prophet forgave them when he said “I will do with you to what Joseph did with his brothers. Go, you are free.” He wages war and made peace. He laid foundations of a n Ummah and provided sunnah, a way of life that reflected his own. Constitution of Medina: Is the first constitution of democracy in the history of constitutional rule. Its principal were based on the Quran and sunnah. Equipped with these principals, the prophet manages to establish the first Islamic state. The constitution expressed that freedom; justice and equality were based on humanity itself (article 15 and 17) Making it clear that Jewish and Christian are “Muslims constituting a political unit of a new type, an umah or community.” The Jews and Christians were respectfully notes as the “people of the books,” an ethnic minority made equal to the majority of the brotherhood. The Constitution of Medina furthermore dismantles tribalism by creating a dominio n like the Rome. This document carries the duties of a tribe, protecting a member and revenger of killers. When anyone wrongfully kills a believer, he is liable to be killed in retaliation for him (article 21) The Constitution fundamentally makes laws abo ve and beyond; transgressors will be punished, we do not protect criminals. Holds criminals responsible for their own actions. However, there is a big emphasis on peace as peace is declared one. The treaty furthermore becomes an alliance of offense; he offered it to save peoples problems in return that they declare the Quraysh as an enemy. “No neighborly protection is given to Quraysh and those who help him” (article 43) Thus, the early model of an Islamic state Muhammad brought fashion citizens into a new social and political unity, to maintain peace and cooperation, to protect the life and prosperity of all citizens, to eliminate aggression and to ensure freedom of religion. Five Pillars of Islam : The five pillars of Islam ar
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