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Arti Dhand

BuddhismBuddhism During the period of the Shramana movement roughly between the 9th and 15th centuries BCE movement of homeless wanderers Jainism emerged as an ascetic order during this movement and Buddhism emerged around this time as well approx 2500 yrs ago buddhism is a missionary tradition that spreads through belief It has spread extraordinarily throughout the world spread a lot from coming to the west 3 major cultural regions southern buddhism THERAVADA school refers ot the type of buddhism we find in the southern part of asia sri lanka southeast asia thailand vietnam eastern buddhism MAHAYANA buddhism china korea japan northern TANTRIC tibet mongolia central asia Nepal quite distinct from each other centered around the insights experiences and teaching of SIDDHARTHA GAUTHAMA the BUDDHA buddha is a title not a first name meaning the enlghtened awakened historically speaking we know very little about him we have a great deal of hagiographical info about himSakyamuniTribe of Sakya This is the clan that the Buddha was from He was the son of the chief of the clanSiddhartha Gauthama historically speaking we know very little about ihim we have a great deal of hagiographical info about him this narrative has proven to b extremely powerful in the tradition what we do know about Siddhartha he grew up roughly 563483dates debated contemporary of mahavira son of cheif of clan SAKYA SAKYAMUNIsage of the sakya born in an aristocratic envorionment hagiographies have extreme loving detail parents invite sages soothsayers and prophets to come see the child and bless himone man gives a prophecy by seeing the marks on him and says either he will be a great leader warrior or a great leader in other ways and leave society becoming a world renouncer His parents became determined to plan the course of this life so as to prevent him from ever renouncing society They decided to keep him as happy as possible in order to do this In this way he grew up in the lap of luxury with all kinds of pleasures and was catered to in every way His life goes very smoothly until he is married and his wife is expecting a child This makes him develop a curiosity about life and seeing what is outside the world he is accustomed to and so he asks his fathe to arrange an outing for him father gives orders for the streets to be cleans and old ugly and sick people to be told to go home1 Siddhartha leaves with a chariot and sees three sites during this trip that move him deeply and later led him to renounce society 1 man bent over with a cane seeming to be in tremendous pain He has never seen this before but the charioteer tells him this is normal and that the man is just old 2 and old dying man who is hardly able to move chariot guy tells him that this is also normal and this is how everyones life ends 3 funeral procession Charioteer tells him that death is a part of life and this is how all life ends question burns his mind How do we live in the rpesent knowing what awaits us his son is born and he realizes immediately what awaits him Siddhartha escapes and cuts his hair and becomes a shramana goes into the woods seeking answers becomes skilled at meditation and yoga attempts to fast but renounces it tradition holds that he sits at the base of a tree BODHI TREE and refuses to move until he achieves enlightenment He then shares his knowledge with his old companions who see him glowing and become his first disciples Gains a large following as his fame begins to spread He is said to have died between the ages of 7280 from food poisoning at the home of a disciple leaving behind a dynamic community of monks and nunsTheravadaMahayana Questions revolving the status of the Arhant one who has achieved enlightenment and other such issues led the Buddhism splitting into two sects Theravada orthodox and Mahayana The majority agree that it is possible for an Arhant to reach the same status as the Buddha upon achieving enlightenment and these people form the Mahayana while those that disagree became the Theravada theravada today is most prevalent in eastsoutheast asia sri lanka thailand vietnam etc mahayana goes on to develop in india to china korea japan and later on expands again into areas of tibet central asia mongolia nepal etc Differences 1st major diff M develops a very heavy emphasis on one concept of UPAYA v imp term flavors all aspects of M doctrine and practice means skill refers to the idea that the buddha was a tremendously skillful teacher and bc of his skill as a teacher he is able to gauge the capacity and aptitude of his audience so fashions his teachings accordingly to the aptitude of the audience leads to all sorts of development in M tradition one reason we see a v significant difference in the scripture of T and M T canon is the pali canon affirmed by the tradition M takes all of that but expands on it tremendously because the understanding is the buddha is always addressing new audiences and hence always has new teachings so M canon never really closes encompasses T canon and develops further many more sutras throughout history 2nd pt has to do with concept of upaya M places much more emphasis on aptitude of layordinary people T maintained that in order to achieve enlightenment you have to 2become a monk M contested monkish monopoly and said ordinary ppl are equal to monks or nuns gave lay ppl much higher aptitiude than T did M ridicules Ts attachment to monastic order so in various texts of M you see this ridicule of T as old fashioned and clinging to rules this comes in several sutrasAnityaThere are 2 types of existence conditional and unconditional Anitya means impermanent nothing last forever Thus it comes under the conditional experience The Buddha teaches that our lives are always changing and nothing ever stays the same Our character and personality changes according to the things we experience in life How can I say that I was the same person in the past we cant stay the same forever Even our earthly bodies are conditional Everyone must eventually die one day This is what the Buddha told his disciples when he was about to die from food poisoning Atman our spirit will always be going through a process of rebirths and deaths until we reach enlightenment and find mukti a relief from the cycle of rebirth and eventually become a Buddha or a Bodhisattva in the Mahayana sect an enlightened person rejects entering nirvana so they can help others to achieve it Most even vow never to reach it until everyone on earth is enlightened although some branches disagree whether the quality or path to enlightenment is the same DukkhaDukkha means anxiety and stress I can argue that stress is a type of suffering and thus the suffering that we experience in life is due to desire as per the Buddhas teachings When enlightened he discovered the truths about life particularly four which connected to the suffering on earth 1 Life is conditioned be suffering there is always suffering 2 The suffering is caused be desire 3 If you get rid of desire you get rid of suffering 4 The eighth fold path shows how one can live without desire The eighth fold path is also called the middle way It is neither extreme nor bland Therefore the four Nobel truths of Buddhism is a way to get rid of the Dukkha in our life AnatmanAnatman means notself That there is an idea that I or Me exists in reality when taken apart there is nothing identifiable as such It is only throuhg the connection of all of our self and our experiences that make up an I Therefore in reality it is an illusion An example is the car metaphor take away all the parts of the car and there is no car anymore but different pieces of metal Therefore when our physical being is taken apart from our soul there is no soul and thus no self Soul comes from the word atman ANatman means no soul All things are composed of certain elements once taken apart there is nothing Skandhas DharmasHuman beings are composed of five parts called the Dharmas which make us whole and give us a sense of self It is the analysis of existence a description of form 1 An external form2 Having sensations and feelings3
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