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University of Toronto St. George
Andre Maintenay

Chapter 2 The Jewish Tradition Aggadah: anecdotal or narrative material in the Talmud; see also hallakha Apocalypse: from the Greek for unveiling (the Latin equivalent is revelation); the final battle between the forces of darkness and light expected at the end of time. Apocalyptic literature flourished in Hellenistic era Ashkenazim: Jews of northern and eastern Europe, as distinguished from the Mediterranean Sephardim. Bar Mitzvah: son of the commandments; the title given to a thirteen year old boy when he is initiated into adult ritual responsibilities; some branches of Judaism also celebrate a bat mitzvah for girls. Berith: Hebrew term for covenant, the special relationship between god and the Jewish people Cantor: the liturgical specialist who leads the musical chants in synagogue services. Diaspora: dispersal, the Jewish world outside the land of ancient Israel; it began with the Babylonian exile, from which not all Jews returned Documentary hypothesis: The theory (1894) that the Pentateuch was not written by one person (Moses) but compiled over a long period of time from multiple sources eschatology:doctrine concerning the end of the age, from the Greek for study of the end exile: the deportation of Jewish leaders from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering Babylonians in 586 BCE; disrupting local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marked the transition from Israelite religion to Judaism exodus: the migration of Hebrews from Egypt under the leadership of Moses, understood in later Hebrew thought as marking the birth of the Israelite nation Gaon: title of a senior rabbinical authority in Mesopotamia under Persian and Muslim rule Gemarah: the body or Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah, which together with it makes up the Talmud(both the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud) Haggadah: the liturgy for the ritual Passover supper Halakha: material in the Talmud of a legal nature; see also aggada Hasidim: Pious ones; applied to two unrelated groups of loyal or pious Jews: those who resisted Hellenism military in second century BCE Palestine, and the mystically inclined followers of the Baal Shem Tov in eighteenth century Poland and their descendants today. Hesed: Hebrew term for the loyal conduct, sometimes translated as mercy or loving kindness, incumbent on God and on humans as parties to the covenant relationship.
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