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Eleanor Pontoriero

TermsHierarchical complementarity a term used by Ambedkar to describe the hierarchical structure of class society in theHindu tradition He came to recognize an unrelenting hierarchy in Hindu tradition whichnecessarily led to oppression which caused him to convert to Buddhism Hindu dharma canbe construed to endorse a view of society as functioning under a type of socialorganization called hierarchical complementarily such that people have different butcomplementary roles within the society based on caste gender and life stage and suchthat relations between people of different castes genders and ages are hierarchicallydefined Another world tradition that functions under a similar model is ConfucianismThe immediate cause of his conversion to Buddhism was his realization that after twelveyears of working successfully to open all of Indias temples to members of every castethereby ending the practice of excluding those people who belong to the castes consideredmost impure untouchables the status of these lowcaste people remained unchanged in the eyes oftheir fellow Hindus The degrading treatment and the abuse of members of the untouchablecastes continuedIndividual egalitarianism Individual egalitarianism is the concept that every single independent individual personseparate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs or goals should betreated as equal from birth usually meaning held equal under the law and in society atlarge It is a belief in human equality especially with respect to social political andeconomic rights and privileges and advocates the removal of inequalities among peopleand of discrimination on grounds such as race gender sexual orientation religion etcDehumanization During times of conflict or war conventional moral and ethical codes concerning thetreatment of others are often challenged Dehumanization is the deliberate removal ofsympathetic human traits when referring to members of an opposing ideology racepolitical party or other source of conflict Adolf Hitlers references to Jews as verminor rats is one example of dehumanization in action Dehumanization is to make somebodyless human by taking away his or her individuality the creative and interesting aspectsof his or her personality or his or her compassion and sensitivity towards others It may be directed by an organization such as a state or may be the compositeof individual sentiments and actions as with some types of racism Stateorganizeddehumanization has been directed against perceived racial or ethnic groups nationalitiesor foreigners religious groups genders minorities of various sexual orientationsdisabled people as a class economic and social classes and many conflicts The enemyforces are often described as extremists rebels or terrorists while friendly forces aredescribed as troops or freedom fighters This method allows the public to override their natural aversions to conflict by perceiving their enemies as inhuman Once the enemy hasbeen stripped of humanity and becomes an object worthy of punishment the idea ofmistreating or even destroying this threat becomes morally justifiable Dehumanizationtactics also tap into a persons innate prejudices such as by creating the character ofthe Muslim extremist or the Jewish threat It is far easier to justify theannihilation of a caricature than an actual race or religion Dehumanization is one of the two principle antiSemitic strands dating from the time of medieval Christianityare apparent in anti Israeli sentimentOverlapping Consensus has to do with the acceptance of human rights documents and practices by the majority of states which make up the international community in relation to opposition to human rights regarding it as a western notionIe Asian Values DebateThe UN Declaration of HR 1948 was an international response to the atrocities of WWIISummer TwissIn response to this watershed event of inhumanity representatives of the many nations and cultures in the United Nations agreed that such acts were antithetical to each and all of their traditionsThis judgement was expressed in rights language in the UDHRThe fact that rights language was employed was doubtlessly due to the dominance of the Western legal tradition in the international arena but the mutually agreed upon judgement about the proscription of certain acts was not exclusively a Western Moral JudgementKing 124The HR documents of 1960s and 1970s saw nonwestern representatives play a prominent role as did the 1979 convention on the protection of womens rights as well as the 1993 UN Draft Declaration on the rights of Indigenous PeoplesKing p124125 TwissFar from preempting or replacing the rich moral teachings of various cultural traditions specific expressions of human rights concerns have arisen from the mutual recognition of adherents of these traditions that they have a shared interest in the protection of certain valuesBrutality tyranny starvation discrimination displacement and the like are recognized by adherents of all traditions as their common enemy King p125 Vienna Declaration on HR of 1993differences in foreign policies conflicts involving diverse religious cultural and ethical views Onuma Yasuaki on international HR documentsrepresent common normative standards based on the widest attainable consensus among nations with diverse perspectives King p125Buddhist 5 Lay PreceptsCambodian Buddhists claim a link between the 5 Lay Precepts and human rightsCambodian human rights training manual directly links the precepts and human rights as follows 1Not killing living things is to respect the right to life 2Not to steal the belongings of others is to respect the right of property 3Not to commit sexual offences is to respect the rights of individuals and the rights of society 4Not to drink intoxicating beverages is to respect the right of individual security and respect the right of security within society 5Not to lie or defame is to respect the right of human dignity Authors who connect HR with Buddhist thoughtpractice 5 Lay PreceptsPerera Keown King KeownThe apparent differences between the moral teachings of Buddhism and human rights charters is one of form rather than substanceThese rights are the extrapolation of what is due under Dharma King p143 ReadingSP4Four Noble TruthsKeownIdentifies the core of human rights in the idea of human dignity and identifies the 3rd and 4th Noble Truths as the source of Buddhist affirmation of human dignity The most promising approach to linking human rights and Buddhism will be one which locates human rights and dignity within a comprehensive account of human goodness and which sees basic rights and freedoms as integrally related to human flourishing and selfrealizationThis is because the source of human dignity in Buddhism lies nowhere else than in the literally infinite capacity of human nature for participation in goodness King p144 KeownBuddhism also holds in the doctrine of notself that all individuals are equal in the most profound sense King p145Equality of rights fundamental human dignity right to life Reading SP4the modern experiment Text Jurgen Moltmanna political experiment which aims to create a more secular societymainly associated with Christianity more specifically Catholicismfreedom from the Church which holds a great deal of powerenlightenmentgrounding human rights on Gods right goes against the modernexperiment to separate society from religious morals thinking ofmorals as a duty to humanity rather than to God or higher powerMoltmann writes very descriptively about the role of religion in thepolitical sphere and what role it plays in democracychallenges political hierarchy and the idea of the modernexperiment Human beings do not exist for the sake of rule rulerather exists for the sake of human beingsuniversalism
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