Sorcery- this can be defined as a magic that is used to constrain the will. An example of this
would be love magic where you would cast a spell and let’s say a person you love now falls in
love with you; well this is sorcery because you are forcing someone to do something they may
not want to do taking away their free will. You should note that it was hard to separate white
magic from black magic, or protective magic from sorcery, so Kieckhefer more identifies with
sorcery being a type of Black and harmful magic, but at times does say sorcery can be a kind of
white magic as well as Kieckhefer explains it depends on ones point of view. He states sorcery
can be the misuse of natural magic ( medical magic) if it is used in a way to constrain the will
(81). He speaks of how there are many grey areas of magic because a sorcerer can use protective
magic to heal someone but they later regain their sickness or get worse. Does that mean that the
sorcerer used both dark and white magic on the person?
Diabolical (demonic) magic- Kieckhefer defines demonic magic from not being different than
religion, he describes that this is a religion that turns away from God looking toward the demons
for help in human affairs. This is more of trying to manipulate demons, unlike natural magic you
are not manipulating nature but asking demons to help in your affairs or do you biddings for you.
Natural magic- Kieckhefer defines this by saying natural magic is not different from science,
but rather is a branch of it, it said it was a magic that dealt with occult virtues or hidden powers
within nature. An example is using a boiled lizard to cure a sickness so through nature you can
find these sorts of remedies, which is like science and how medicine works.
Sorcery- define by Russell, sorcery is the oldest and deepest historical concept of witchcraft. It
is based on the assumption that the cosmos is a whole and hidden connections therefore exist
among all natural phenomena. It is a way to control or influence these connections in order to
effect practical results one desires. Sorcery in Russel terms also means to be able to invoke
spirits and compel of force them to do your bidding. But for Russel it is all about these
connections and an example is you are mad at your father, you go to your and because of your
anger wish him dead and strike your pillow. The next day you wake up to find him dead.
Sorcery is mostly used to harm people. These spirits were often hostile toward humanity as well.
Russell believes that sorcery is strictly unjust and is used to cause harm, and was used in an
antisocial fashion. Diabolical (demonic) magic- this had to do with the invocation of calling up spirits or demons
too do the bidding of the sorcerer. Russell states that the only spirits that could be compelled by
the humans were those evil spirits. He states that Christian theologians often identified with
these evil spirits as those being the pagan gods like Jupiter, Diana, etc. coming from the Roman
pantheon who were really demons in their eyes and servants of Satan. When sorcery is done in
private to benefit of individuals rather than the society this is not magic. An example of private
magic is sorcery.
Natural Magic- for Russell I feel like natural magic has to do more with mechanical
performance of one’s physical actions to produce another thing. Some examples Russell gives is
tying a knot in a cord and placing it under someone’s bed to cause impotence, another example is
performing sexual intercourse in a sown field in order to increase the harvest. I may be wrong
but and this kind of practice changes from society to society but I believe this is the closest thing
to natural magic there is. In the Russell text they mention there are physicians and witch doctors
and if you were sick you would ask for both but at this time that would be a doctor and I don’t
think a doctor would be using magic but instead science. Sorcery has an integral function in
society, and a priest or priestest may perform ritualistic acts to make rain, ripen a harvest,
procure peace, or secure success in the hunt or victory of war. So long as these acts are not
public and social intent sorcery can be a handmaid of religion. Part II – question 1
Medical Magic- medical magic came from two Anglo-Saxon manuals, the first Manuel is called
the ―Leech book of Bald‖, this deals with aliments on the outside of the body and internal
illnesses. It did not lack elements of natural magic, it adds prescriptions from Christian rituals, ie
Prayer. Some examples include prescription for skin disease. Mandrake is another example
which is used for afflictions of the eyes. The first part of the prescriptthn has a herbal remedy
with a ritual component. The second manual is lachunga, is from the 11 century and heavily
leans toward magic. It prescribes Christian Prayers to be recited in Latin over ingredients used
Charms (prayers, blessing, Adjurations)- So there are prayers which are forms of request
directed to God and holy figures, some examples are the lords prayer, hail Mary, and the creed.
There are blessing which are forms of wishes which are addressed to the patients. Lastly there
are adjurations which are forms of commands toward a sickness. In blessing and Adjurations the
sacred events of the bible where more than simple sources of power. They were analogous to
healing process itself. An example of a charm comes the Anglo Saxon charm which goes like
―fly devil Christ pursues you. When Christ is born the pain will go‖. Another charm is the
Charm of st. Williams, was a remedy from worms note some charms were enhanced by
ascriptions to a saint.
Protective Amulets and Talismans- Amulets were known as protective devices and they could
ward off disease or protect ppl from visible and invisible enemies. An examples being a hairs
foot, which enabled one to go anywhere without danger. A talisman is similar to amulets in
purpose and in motive employment but historians sometimes treat them separately***. The
distinguishing feature of a talisman from amulet is that they have written word or atleast letter
inscribed on them. An example of an Amulet/talisman was the relics of saints. Another example
is on some feast corpus Christi, the host would be carried in precession through town into the
field to ensure fertility of crops.
Sorcery- Sorcerers used healing techniques and herbs to help with remedies.
An example of sorcery is using love magic to constrain the wills of others. Many times sorcery
involved potions, charms and amulets. Sorcerers used charms with evil intent and those are
referred to as curses.
Divination and Popular astrology- Divination was a means for knowing a destiny that was
foreordained. Some examples of divination are ―oneiromancy‖- interpretation of dreams Ex- dreaming about water may signal death by drowning
Scientific Astrology- based on detailed observations of the heavens.
Ex- detailed charts told which days of the lunar cycle were good or bad for various activities.
Trickery- practical jokes, performative magic
Ex- take hair from the head of a woman and attached to a hollowed out egg. Move the egg about
and people will think it is floating because they can’t see the hair.
Question 2- number 60 describes a magicians going into someone’s house and doing magical
tricks this corresponds with trickery from Kieckhefer because you have magic being used as
performance which involved tricks. This also shows divination because it mentions diviners
coming to your house to foretell future which corresponds to Kieckhefers Divination of knowing
60- mentioned above, magicians going into someone’s house, doing trickery: This relates to
kieckhefer’s types of magic, as both practices are using trickery.
61- observation of paganism, assistance of the devils, worshipping the elements such as the
moon the sun and the stars which corresponds with Kieckhefers types of magic where the use
of astrology is practiced based on detailed observation of sky (heavens).
63- talks about making incantations and knots and various enchantments which evil men,
swineherds, ploughmen, and sometimes hunters make while enchanting diabolical formulas over
things like bread or grass and certain nefarious bandages, and hide them in certain places.
This corresponds to Kieckhefers with sorcery as you are using basic techniques which
involve diabolical formulas to perform magic.
64- Here we have women practicing magic in woolen work, in their webs to bring something
about using incantation, and eventually resorting to counter-incantations with the devil, or else