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RLG100Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Magia Naturalis, European Witchcraft, Sciatica

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Eleanor Pontoriero
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Mid term notes
Issues and Problems in Defining magic
Russell;;it differentiates from societies, cultures and countries;;He doesnt want ppl to think that
only things defined by science are true - there are dif roads to reality magic isn't any lower on the
scale then science is;;Theories grew up from sorcery through religion to science
Kieck;;Hard to define bcd magic involves practical manipulation of the world/to define some-
thing as magical depends on the type of power in which in invokes&relies on divine action or
manifestation of power of nature then it is not magic/magic is an overall crossing point where the
exploitation of natural forces & the invocation of demonic powers intersect/depending on the
time frame it was considered natural/*cant judge the rationality of magic on own standards bcd
everyone has different rationality(however things are considered to be rational if they are consis-
tent with prevailing knowledge)rational in their own time and place/you can only define magic in
regards to the time and place that it is taking place
Magic-Russell;;thought do magic as a scholasiticion- a method of inquiry,not a school of
thought / high (of natural phenomena) and low magic (simply Sorter)
Sorcery Russell ;;you dont need a special knowledge to do it, tou just need to want something
that you cant have/low magic; beneficial and maleficent(harmful)/Mechanical/invokes
spirits/Oldest element in wc / formed from pagen rlg and chris heresy/Assumes cosmos is a
whole with hidden connections - controls and influences the connections to get results/Simple
sorc ; mechanical performance of an action to produce another/When simple is beneficial is ac-
cepted by soc; helps define/sustain soc values/explains scary events,phenomena/gives individual
power in mystifying the world/serves as system of justice, righteous wrongs/getting even/Com-
plex sorc ; aid of spirits (dif from rlg bcd it compels,force, not implores,beg)/Malevolent sorc
(showing a wish to do evil to others) ; helping affirm boundaries in a soc / enhances solidarity by
demonizing opponents/In this you are exploiting spirits not worship like diabolism/It performed
useful functions ; this is why it did not fade/Sorcery is based on the assumption that the cosmos
is a whole ; the connections are hidden in natural phenomena
Kieck;; black or harmful magic/difficult to distinguish from protective and medical magic/ex-
ample: using love magic to regain husband’s affection is constraining his will and therefore,
evil/Techniques were the same medical or protective magic, potions, charms, amulets/Difference
between positive and negative magic lay in the purposes they served/Involved sympathetic mag-
ic/Like healing magic, in Sorcery, the power of herbs is enhanced by the use of charms/curses ut-
tered in secrecy, victim would not know about them
Diabolical (demonic) Magic Russell; ; For Alexander and Russell Diabolical and natural
magic are the two forms of sorcery/Complex sorcery/it implores spirits/demons for help/this
idea developed over time/blurring of sorcery with demonology, characteristics assigned to demon
might be assigned to a witch/Graeco-Roman thought began the closely linking of sorcery with
demonology that became the dominant characteristic of European witchcraft
Kieck;; Invokes evil spirits, rests upon a network of religious beliefs/Perversion of religion,
turned away from God and towards demons/Divination can be seen as being communicated by
demons (Augustine)
Natural Magic Russell; ; Form of sorcery, related to folklore/Witch of folklore is a sorcerer as-
sociated with powers of nature, has aspects of nature within herself/Natural magic for them is
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