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Textbook notes for Test 2-Christianity

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Department
Religion
Course Code
RLG100Y1
Professor
Andre Maintenay

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World Religion ± Test 2 ± Textbook Study Notes:
Gospels/New Testament
± describes words and life of Jesus
± ZULWWHQUHPHPEUDQFHVRI-HVXVZRUGVDQGGHHGV
± recorded some years after his death
± by those who believed in him
± difficult to establish the historical accuracy of the New Testament about Jesus (words)
± Gospels are like paintings of Jesus, not photographs
± Jesus believed and trusted in god, just like Jews
± Jesus believe God = created and sustainer of universe
± Jesus thought of God as his father
± -HVXVH[WUHPely special relationship with God = central to Christianity
± Jesus ± raised as a Jew
± Jesus accepted scared authority ± the Law and the Prophets (the Torah and the books of history and prophecy)
± Young Jesus learned the Jewish scriptures in Hebrew
± Young Jesus was a very devout and thoughtful Jew
± Jesus ± independence of thought, own opinions
± Jesus ± LOVE
± Jesus ± appreciation for nature
± Jesus ± celibacy Æ influential to future generations (nuns, monks, priests etc.) ± still exists in several branches of
Christianity today
± Jesus ± not close with family, but after death, disharmony died down
2 Great Commandments: Æ teachings of Jesus (laws of LOVE)
1) a love for God
2) an ethical kindness toward others
- Love god and love your neighbour ± already existed in Hebrew scripture
- Kingdom of God:
o People care about each other
o Poor looked after
o Violence and exploitation abandoned
o Religious rules do not overlook human needs
- Baptizing ± purification ± Jesus carried practice after John the Baptists death
o John the Baptist preached that end of world was near ± Apocalypticism
The book of Acts (Apostles)
- DIWHU-HVXVDVFHQVLRQWRKHDYHQIRUW\GD\VIROORZLQJKLVUHVXUUHFWLRQKLVIROORZHUVJDWKHUHGIXOORIIHDUQRW
knowing what to do next
- Spirit of God ± form of fire, gave them courage to spread their belief in Jesus, the Messiah
- Christian belief that the spread of the Christian message was guided by god
- BIRTHDAY OF THE CHURCH ± first preaching of the Christian message
- APOSTLE (12 disciples of Jesus Christ)±PETER - early Christian message ± God is now working in special
ZD\V-HVXVZDVWKHH[SHFWHG0HVVLDK*RGVDPEDVVDGRUDQQRXQFHGµILQDOGD\VEHIRUH*RGVMXGJPHQWDQG
the coming of a new world
- Baptism = sign of rebirth, share possessions, care for widows and orphans
-DPHV-HVXVEURWher) a.k.a. Just ± leader of the early Christian group who remained in Jerusalem ± almost entirely
Jewish
- great authority
- Jewish-Christian Church = strong influence for the first 40 years
o Weakened by the destruction of the Temple in 70CE
o Disappeared over the next 100 years
o Instead, the non-Jewish, Greek-speaking branch of Christianity, led by Paul (and others) began to spread
throughout the Roman Empire
The New Testament:
4 parts:
1) Gospels
± describe the life and teachings of Jesus; Mark, Matthew, Luke, John = Evangelists
2) Acts of Apostles (book of Acts)
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- Tells the initial spread of Christianity ± historical accuracy cannot be confirmed
3) Epistles
- Letters to early Christians, primarily by Paul
4) Revelation
- Visionary book ± foretells in symbolic language the triumph of Christianity
(27 books in the New Testament)
Gospels Ùnew Torah ± teachings of Moses
Acts of Apostles Ù Former Prophets
Epistles Ù the Writings (wisdom literature)
Revelation Ù Latter Prophets
- all books of the New Testament were written in Greek
Gospels
- Mark = primary source for the later Gospels of Matthew and Luke
- Matthew ± audience of a Jewish background ± e.g. portrays Jesus as the new Moses
- Quotes of Jesus
- Mark ± shortest of the 4 gospels Æ suggests that it is the oldest
o Begins with the adult public life of Jesus
o (QGVZLWK-HVXVHPSW\WRPE
o Resurrection added later
o Belief that some pages from the end were lost
- Luke ± sense of wonder ± speaks repeatedly of the miraculous action of the Spirit of God at word in the world
o µZRPHQVJRVSHOEHFDXVHRIGHOLFDWHSRUWUDLWVRI0DU\(OL]DEHWKDQGRWKHUZRPHQ
o mercy and compassion
o strong focus on underdog
o Good Samaritan story
o Portrays Jesus as moving toward his sacrifice in Jerusalem
**Mark, Matthew, Luke = SYNONPCTIC GOSPELS
- John - Stands by itself
o Time of writing difficult to pinpoint b/c of apparent elaboration of Christian doctrines
o Jesus is the incarnation of God ± the divine made visible in human form
The Acts of Apostles
- the second part of the Gospel of Luke
- portrays Paul in a parallel journey to his final sacrifice in Rome
The Epistles
- some long and formal, some brief and hurried
- some written to individuals, some to individual churches, some in circulation of several churches
- 2 groups: 1) Pauline epistles 2) Universal epistles (others)
- Pauline letters = earliest works in the New Testament
- Themes vary ± mostly focused on proper belief, morality, and church order
Revelation
- Originally written as a book of encouragement for Christians who were under threat of persecution
- Shows that suffering will be followed by the triumph of goodness over evil
- Language is highly symbolic, uses numbers and images
CHRISTIAN CANON ± list of authoritative books/documents
PAUL (4-64 CE)
- missionary
- cofounder of Christianity
- -HVXVWHDFKLQJVÆ 3DXVLQWHUSUHWDWLRQ
- Originally Saul
- Jewish
- 1st opposed the Jesus Movement ± saw that it could divide Judaism
- life mission: spread belief in Christ around the Mediterranean, particularly ± NON-Jews
www.notesolution.com
- PAULINE EPISTLES ± letter part of the new testament ± addressed to regions and towns in Asia Minor (now
Turkey) and Greece Æ part of the Roman Empire
- preached in Rome
- tradition says he was executed in Rome
- missionary technique = same in most towns
- visit local synagogues ± use Jewish scriptures (e.g. books of Isaiah) to explain his own belief that Jesus was the
long awaited Messiah
- Paul ± unsuccessful because most Jews believe the Messiah to be of royal background not a poor man called
Jesus
- 48(67,216&KULVWLDQLW\VUHODWLRQWR-XGDLVP"6KRXOG&KULVWLDQVSUDFWLce the same rituals as the Jews, read the
same scriptures, and follow the same services/diets?
- because many Christians were non-Jews, some of the elements of Judaism were retained and others abandoned
o e.g. baptism Ù circumcision, retained weekly services and Jewish scripture
- his efforts to define what it meant to be a Christian = major turning point in Christianity
- 3DXO¶VYLHZVRQPRUDOLW\DQGRQ&KULVWLDQSUDFWLFH QRUPIRUPRVWRIWKH&KULVWLDQZRUOG
- 3DXO¶VFRQFOXVLRQV SURPLQHQWUROHLQVKDSLQJWKHPRYement b/c his extensive missionary activities in
major cities of the Roman Empire Æ left letters stating his beliefs
- His letters were copied repeatedly, circulated and read publicly ± therefore formed the basis for all later
Christian belief
- Human imperfections Æ guilt
- -HVXVGHDWKZDVDYROXQWDU\VDFULILFHWRWDNHRQWKHSXQLVKPHQWRIJXLOWRIHYHU\RQH
- -HVXVVDFULILFH redemption from punishment
- Paul preaches ± NHHSLQJ-HZLVKODZVGRHVQWPHDQWKDWDSHUVRQFRPHVLQWRULJKWUHODWLRQVKLSZLWK*RG
(righteousnessUDWKHUWKHDFFHSWDQFHRI-HVXVZKRVKRZV*RGVORYHDQGZDVSXQLVKHGIRURXUZURQJGRLQJ
does
- -HVXVZDVVHQWE\JRGWRVSUHDG*RVORYH
- Sin
Original Sin ± DQLQFOLQDWLRQWRZDUGHYLOLQKHULWHGE\KXPDQEHLQJVDVDUHVXOWRI$GDPVGLVREHGLHQFe
Trinity ± 7KHµSHUVRQVLQJRGIDWKHUVRQDQG+RO\6SLULW
The Bible:
- 1st 3 quarters is made of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament)
- last quarter = New Testament (new contract/covenant with God)
- Christianity = missionary tradition
- Stages of Christianity:
1) Jewish Messianic movement in Israel
2) Spread around the Mediterranean
3) Became official religion of the Roman Empire
4) Spread to the rest of Europe
5) Spread worldwide
- Paul ± Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy
- Peter (one of the original apostles) was at Rome when Paul arrived and they both died under Emperor Nero in 64
CE
- After 64 CE, clear that organization was needed
- Christians developed monarchical model of church organization ± one ruler = Bishop ± in charge of low ranking
clergy
- Centralized Christianity = IMPOSSIBLE
o Bishops played a significant role for churches and neighboring regions
- Besides Rome, other cities of the Roman Empire became centers of Christian Belief (e.g. Antioch in Syria and
Alexandria in Egypt)
- Important Bishops = Patriarchs
- 4 important (more power) bishop cities:
o Alexandria
o Rome
o Jerusalem
o Antioch
- to answer questions about doctrine and practice
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Description
World Religion Test 2 Textbook Study Notes: GospelsNew Testament describes words and life of Jesus Z7L990370202-7,3.0841-08:8Z478,3008 recorded some years after his death by those who believed in him difficult to establish the historical accuracy of the New Testament about Jesus (words) Gospels are like paintings of Jesus, not photographs Jesus believed and trusted in god, just like Jews Jesus believe God = created and sustainer of universe Jesus thought of God as his father -08:80[9702ely special relationship with God = central to Christianity Jesus raised as a Jew Jesus accepted scared authority the Law and the Prophets (the Torah and the books of history and prophecy) Young Jesus learned the Jewish scriptures in Hebrew Young Jesus was a very devout and thoughtful Jew Jesus independence of thought, own opinions Jesus LOVE Jesus appreciation for nature Jesus celibacy influential to future generations (nuns, monks, priests etc.) still exists in several branches of Christianity today Jesus not close with family, but after death, disharmony died down 2 Great Commandments: teachings of Jesus (laws of LOVE) 1) a love for God 2) an ethical kindness toward others - Love god and love your neighbour already existed in Hebrew scripture - Kingdom of God: o People care about each other o Poor looked after o Violence and exploitation abandoned o Religious rules do not overlook human needs - Baptizing purification Jesus carried practice after John the Baptists death o John the Baptist preached that end of world was near Apocalypticism The book of Acts (Apostles) - ,1907-08:8,8.038L4394K0,;031479,814OO4ZL3JKL8708:770.9L43KL814OO4Z078J,9K0701:OO4110,7349 knowing what to do next - Spirit of God form of fire, gave them courage to spread their belief in Jesus, the Messiah - Christian belief that the spread of the Christian message was guided by god - BIRTHDAY OF THE CHURCH first preaching of the Christian message - APOSTLE (12 disciples of Jesus Christ)PETER - early Christian message God is now working in special Z,8-08:8Z,89K00[50.90088L,K*48,2-,88,47,334:3.01L3,O,8-01470*48M:J2039,3 the coming of a new world - Baptism = sign of rebirth, share possessions, care for widows and orphans -,208 -08:8-749her) a.k.a. Just leader of the early Christian group who remained in Jerusalem almost entirely Jewish - great authority - Jewish-Christian Church = strong influence for the first 40 years o Weakened by the destruction of the Temple in 70CE o Disappeared over the next 100 years o Instead, the non-Jewish, Greek-speaking branch of Christianity, led by Paul (and others) began to spread throughout the Roman Empire The New Testament: 4 parts: 1) Gospels describe the life and teachings of Jesus; Mark, Matthew, Luke, John = Evangelists 2) Acts of Apostles (book of Acts) www.notesolution.com
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