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RLG 309 TEST 1 Review.docx

Course Code
Eleanor Pontoriero
Study Guide

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RLG 305-Test 1
Terms & Essay Questions
Asian Values Debate (found in Mahoney Ch. 3/ Gearon)
-Asian values contrasted with Western and human right values, and thus should be respected
-point to difference between Eastern community values and Western individual values (both
values can be found in East and West)
-West identified in religious and cultural terms (Christianity and dominant democratic political
culture emphasizing attributes of tolerance, moderation)
-others saw no particular virtue in such ideas
-Asian values prized as a part of Eastern culture as well as being claimed as the engine of the
economic miracles which had at the time been achieved by several Asian societies
-values described as “Asian’ include respect for hierarchies, Asian-style consensus, the
centrality of the family, a culture of obedience and deference to superiors and elders and a
sense of responsibility to the community
-no one has yet demonstrated adequately that the values labeled “Asian” are so very different
from those long adopted in much of the West
-protest that human rights are of a western construct and that cultural relativity should excuse
Asian nations from some of the mandates of the human rights built up the United Nations and
other bodies (this contention was withdrawn at Conference in Vienna)
-Asian people prefer order to freedom as the best means to secure economic growth
-cultural arguments favouring so-called Asian values were used by vicious elites to attempt to
deflect attention from their repressive policies
Globalization (found in Mahoney Ch. 5)
-refers to the expansion of the scale of human events, activities and interactions from a local to
a worldwide, or global level
-distances have diminished and travel expanded through jet transport, communications have
accelerated and multiplied through new information technology, geographical and cultural
differences are being shared and becoming domesticated and commonplace
-no longer any remote quarters of the globe
-worldwide expansion of opportunities for trade, involving faster and cheaper transport of
goods , services and facilities to global markets
-globalization of the economy, technology and the media has also meant the globalization of
problems (the environment, organized crime)
-need for shared basic ethic of mankind
Legal rights (found in Mahoney Ch. 3)
-distinguishable from moral rights
-legal rights are understood as those which are “conceded and enforced by the law of the
-such rights vary from country to country and in particular countries might cover actions such as
the right to receive social welfare, a right to be protected from sexual or racial discrimination

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-the contemporary human rights movement has , as its main goal, the effective translation of
the moral rights inherent in human rights theory into meaningful and concrete legal rights
-in apartheid regime that existed in South Africa, Black South Africans were prevented by law
from moving freely around the country, from engaging in collective labour negotiations (no
legal rights to engage in these activities)
Peace (found in Mahoney Ch. 4)
-Augustine defined peace as the tranquility of order
-was not asserting that peace is the consequence of the order to be
found in society, or that preserving the social order leads to peace as
one of its results
-identifying peace with social order looked at from a particular point
of view: its tranquility, its calmness, absence of disorder
-respect for human rights is an action of peace
-observing the aggregation of individual acts of human rights throughout the world constitutes
a situation of worldly peace
-proposal to organize UN as a permanent arrangement for collectively maintaining future peace
-human rights are indispensable means of bringing about and maintaining world peace
Positive rights (found in Mahoney Ch. 3)
-claim rights (attention is focused not so much on one’s freedom to act, but on other people,
and on what I can morally require them to do in order to help me) are viewed more as positive
-positive rights require that people take active steps to help me exercise my right
-require some positive response (ie some act of commission, and not simply the acts of
omission supplied by the principle of non-interference)
Welfare rights (found in Mahoney Ch. 3)
-passive rights can be called welfare rights, pointing to rights which require the provision of aid
or help from others
-draw attention to the more recent passive social, economic and cultural rights which achieved
prominence in the 20th century and which focus attention on claims for the provision of certain
welfare services by society
-rights to various kinds of welfare goods (social and economic rights to such items as education
or health)
-justify greater governmental involvement through taxation
-claims to a fair share of scare social resources (food and housing, health care, and
opportunities for work) can only be satisfied through organizations.
Critical consciousness a concept developed by Brazilian Educational Theorist Paulo Freire that
is grounded in Marxist critical theory. Critical consciousness focuses on teaching individuals to
attain an in-depth understanding of the world so that one can develop the ability to perceive
social, political, and economic oppression and take action against the oppressive elements of

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society that are highlighted by this understanding. Critical Consciousness is a tool to help read
the world and assist individuals in the creation of a truly democratic society.
UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations
General Assembly on December 10, 1948. It is an affirmation of the moral consensus of the
international community in the wake of the Holocaust, and the bombings of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki. It is established upon principles of absolute equality without distinction and it
formally recognized “the inherent dignity, and the equal and inalienable rights of all members
of the human family as being the foundation for freedom, justice and peace in the world. The
vote for declaration was 48-0 with eight countries opting to abstain from voting ( the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist
Republic, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, People’s Republic of Poland, Union of South
Africa and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The declaration itself consists of a preamble comprised
of seven paragraphs detailing the reasons for the adoption of the declaration, followed by 30
articles detailing what the international community agreed upon in principle as being the rights
of every human being.
Aung San Suu Kyi: Burmese woman who was the Nobel Peace prize recipient in 1991. Known
for being very outspoken about her disagreement and that she was insulted with the
proposition that the Burmese were not fit to enojy as many rights and privaledges as the
citizens of democratic countries. This was to challenge the idea that the alleged dichotomy
between eastern and western values is an idea that is brought forth by oppressing governments
and not the suffering in order to excuse repressive policies. It is also important to note that she
was placed on house arrest for a number of years because of her comments and political
activity which the standing government viewed as an obvious threat.
UN Millenium Goals: these were the goals that were agreed upon by the UN in the year 2000
and the goal was to reach them all by 2015.
1. Eradicate extreme povery and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality rates
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop global partnership for development
Nuremburg (trials): a city in Germany that played a large part in the Nazi Germany era. It was
also a headquarters during WWII.
-after the holocost, those German officials who were involved in the crimes
committed during it were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremburg
-the United Nations was established after this to maintain peace and security and
promote respect for human rights.
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