- Language: oral and written texts; revelation,
interpretation, and codification; "divine" language and its
perceived difference from 'human' uses of language;
language and creation; the power of words, etc.
- Social roles of importance; distinctions between social
roles (rabbi, mullah, priest, Pope, Bishop, Brahmin, monk,
caliphs, imams) versus 'sacred' roles (prophets, buddhas,
ideal human beings (jun-xi), messiahs, bodhisattvas, Shi'a
Imams); connections between social roles and religious
authority; ALSO: find examples that belong in both
categories – how are these roles different from purely
social or purely sacred roles?
- identity formation and the concept of 'tradition' – reflect
on the idea that 'every religion has a mother' - i.e., every
religion both participates in the identity of other traditions
while also being a different 'person'. Try to think of the
best examples of religious traditions in our course that
best express the idea of tradition as both a connection to
and departure from previous traditions.
- 1. "Human Nature" 2. "Nature" or "Natural World" 3.
"Divine World" "spiritual reality" How do each of the
religions that we’ve reviewed articulate the relations
between these three abstract ideas?
TERMS Final Exam
Bar Mitzvah: Ritual that marks the coming of age of
thirteen-year-olds (similar to confirmation in Christianity
Pentateuch: The first five books of the Hebrew bible,
ascribed by tradition to Moses but regarded by modern
scholars as the product of several centuries of later literary
activity aka different authors based on the document
hypothesis. Different from vedas in hindsuism because it
its content it is not attributed by humans.
tefillin - Traditional plrayer garb worn by men on
weekdays. (Two small black boxes that hold passages from
scripture). Contains verses from the torah, in a form of
remembrance of the exodus when the Israelites were
brought out of Egypt. It is the talmud (interpretation of the
oral tradition or mishnah) and not the Torah that specifies
how the tefillin should be worn.
glossolalia - Exotic prayer language (speaking in tongue).
It is representative of the pentecost the fiftieth day after
easter when the holy spirit appeared to Jesus’s disciples.
the pentecostal tradition is known for this expression of
devotion and it is attributed to being in a sort of frenzy.
Nicene Creed - it is a profession of faith established in
the first ecumenical Council of Nicaea. The importance of
the Nicene creed is that it has been adopted by various
christian traditions and what it professes determines that
God, his son and the Holy spirit are of one same substance
and not 3 separate from each other. It is related to
transubstantiation where it is a common belief that the
bread and wine of the eucharist become the blood and
body of christ.
Puritanism - a denomination in itself, but a movement in
English and colonial American Protestant churches that
flourished from the sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth
transubstantiation - Celebration of the eucharist where
the bread and wine offered at a mass is believed to
become the actual body and blood of Christ. The idea of
transubstantiation was established through the Council of
Nicea where it was determined that the holy trinity is in
substance and not separate from one another.
isnad - In order to be considered a Hadith (saying of a
prophet), the text must be accompanied by the chain of
transmission. this proves to be a way to determine
authenticity of the Prophet’s life example.
Atman - in hinduism, Budhism and Jainism it usually refers
to the ‘self’ or the inner soul. In hinduism specifically
upanishadic and vedantic traditions it is considered to be
identical with the Brahman or ‘world soul’ and realization
of this connection will bring liberation from the circle of
rebirth or samsara. The difference in buddhism is that the
idea of this soul as ‘absolute’ and indestructible is
rejected, this leads to the idea of anatman, or no soul
which determines the soul as impermanent.
Mishnah (Judaism) – Part of legal literature along with
Talmud. It is Hebrew summary of oral law. From the idea
that apart from the pentateuch there existed a separate
law transmitted orally and attributed to Moses. It has the
same authority as the Torah and the Pharisees claimed
that this tradition was passed down only to them. This
provides pharisaism with a pretext to govern the
community from the sadducees. It is arranged by topic;
edited by Rabbi Judah ha-Nasi before 220 CE,
ren: the central confucian virtue usually translated as
humanness benevolence goodness or compassion. The
best way to cultivate ren was through careful observance
of li which are the rites, which means not only religious
rituals but social etiquette and courtesy. It is important
because it reflects the message established by Confucius
of Dao which is the right way.
Five bonds: ruler to subject, father to son, husband and
wife older brother younger brother and freind to friend
relates to filial relationships xiao
midrash: Commentary on scripture. It consists of the line
by line interpretation of the Tanakh (the entire body of
scripture containing the law-torah,book of prophets -nevim
and writings -ketuvim) . It is important because it was used