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Rotman Commerce
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John Oesch

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Chapter 10 Employee behaviour: pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influence the organizations effectiveness Performance behaviour: behaviours directly targeted at performing a job (i.e. assembly worker has a simple performance behaviour as opposed to a R&D scientist) Organizational citizenship: behaviours that provide positive benefits to the organization in indirect ways (i.e. an employee who does satisfactory work in terms of quantity and quality but refuses to work overtime, which will help the organization beyond requirements, does not show good organizational citizenship) Counterproductive behaviours: behaviours that detract from organizational performance o Absenteeism: occurs when an employee does not show up for work o Turnover: percentage of an organizations workforce that leaves and must be replaced (some turnover is natural and healthy, but excessive amount has negative consequences like disruption in production) Majority of turnovers occur due to bad management (bullying bosses) o Theft and sabotage o Sexual and racial harassment: can be costly both directly (from law suits, etc) and indirectly (by lowering morale, producing fear) o Aggression and violence Individual differences: physical, psychological, and emotional attributes that vary from one person to another and that make each person unique o Personality: relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one person from another (has 5 fundamental traits) Agreeableness: ones ability to get along with others (a person with high level of agreeableness is gentle, cooperative, etc and a person with low level is often irritable, short tempered, uncooperative, etc) Conscientiousness: number of things a person tries to accomplish (highly conscientious people tend to focus on relatively few tasks at one time and as a result, they are likely to be organized, responsible, thorough, etc; less conscientious people tend to pursue a wide array of tasks and as a result, they are more disorganized, irresponsible and less thorough) Emotionality: degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in their outlook (positive emotionality people are relatively calm, resilient, and secure and people with negative emotionality are more excitable, insecure, reactive and subject to mood swings) Extroversion: persons comfort level with relationships (extroverts are sociable, talkative, assertive, etc while introverts are less sociable, less talkative, less assertive, etc) Openness: how open or rigid a person is in terms of his or her beliefs (high levels of openness people are curious and willing to listen to new ideas and change their own ideas, beliefs, and attitudes while people with low level tend to be less receptive to new ideas and less willing to change their minds) Emotional intelligence OR emotional quotient (EQ): the extent to which people possess social skills, are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves and can express empathy for others (people with high EQs are likely to perform better than others especially jobs requiring interpersonal interaction) o Attitudes: reflection of our beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations or other people Job satisfaction: degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs (a satisfied employee tends to be absent less often, to be a good organizational citizen, and to stay with the organization, however, high level of job satisfaction do not automatically lead to higher productivity) Organizational commitment (job commitment): an individuals identification with the organization and its mission (highly committed employees see themselves as true members of the firm, overlook minor sources of dissatisfaction and see themselves remaining as members of the organization) One way to increase employee commitment is to give employees a voice (make them feel like they belong) 2 important concepts for matching people with jobs are o Psychological contract: set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (referred to as contributions) and what the organization will provide the employee in return (referred to as inducements) If either party perceives an inequity in the contract, that party may seek a chance (i.e. employee can ask for a raise; employer can train the worker to improve skills or transfer them) Downsizing and cutbacks have disrupted psychological contracts because many organizations cant provide reasonable assurance of job security o Person-job fit: the extent to which a persons contributions and the organizations inducements match one another (a good person-job fit can lead to higher performance and positive attitudes) Motivation: set of forces that cause, focus, and sustain workers behaviour (managers must provide what the employees expect to receive, in order to keep them motivated) Classical theory of motivation: workers are motivated solely by money Scientific management: analyzing jobs in order to find better, more efficient ways to perform them Hawthorne effect: tendency for workers productivity to increase when they feel they are receiving special attention from management Human relations: the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another (this idea developed several motivations theories) o Theory X: a management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be productive because they are naturally lazy, ir
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