Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Organizational behavior is the attitudes and behavior of individuals and groups in organizations.
Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. (Acquire, allocate, utilize)
Classical view: very high degree of specialization of labor and a very high degree of coordination and centralized decision making.
Scientific management is Frederick Taylor's system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks.
Hawthorne studies are research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment.
(Harvard's Elton mayo)
Human relations movement is a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs.
Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristic that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment.
Self-monitoring is the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social setting and relationship.
Locus of control is set of beliefs about whether one's behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. (fate luck powerful people VS self-initiative personal actions and free will)
Big five: extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience
Affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people in a positive/negative light.
Proactive behavior is taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones. Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range
of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one's environment. Individuals who have a PP are unconstrained by situational forces and act to change and influence their environment.
Self-efficacy is beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task.
Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment. Components are a perceiver, a target that is being perceived, and some situational context in
which the perception occurring.
Primary effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressior3. Recency effect is the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions.
Central traits are personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular !Mc...est to a perceiver.
Projection is the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and &elings to others. Stereotyping is the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore various among them.
Implicit personality theories are personal theories that people have about which personally characteristics go together.
Dispositional attributions are explanations for behavior based on an aces personality or intellect. Situational attributions are explanations for behavior based on an actor's external situation or environment.
Perceptual defense is the tendency for the perceptual system to def cud the perceiver against unpleasant emotions.
Selective perception: perceivers do not use all the available cu. and those they do use are thus given special emphasis.
Attribution is the process by which we assign causes or moti-es to explain people's behavior. The attribution process is important because many rewards and punishments in organizations are based on judgments
about what really caused a target person to behave in a ce, cain way.
Fundamental attribution error is the tendency to overemphasize disposition,31 explanations for behavior at the expense of situational explanations.
Self-serving bias are the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures.
Contrast effects are previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer's perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants.
Halo effect is the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic tends to color ratings on other traits.
Job satisfaction refers to a collection of attitudes that people have about their jobs. Two aspects: facet satisfaction is the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job. Overall
satisfaction is an overall or summary indicator of a person's attitude toward his or her job that cuts across the various facets. Attitude is a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific
object, situation, person, or category of people. (belief + value=attitude -behavior) Satisfaction with the content of the work is the best predictor of absenteeism. Turnover refers to resignation from an
organization, and it can be incredibly expensive. OCB is voluntary, informal behavior that contributes to organizational effectiveness. (helping)
Organizational commitment is an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization. Affective is based on a person's identification and involvement with an organization
(want to). Continuance is based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization (have to). Normative is based on the ideology or a feeling of obligation to an organization. (should)
Stressors are environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress. Stress is a psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense or
anxious because the person does not feel capable of coping with these demands.
Externals (locus of control) are more likely to feel anxious in the face of potential stressors. Internals are more likely to confront stressors directly because they assume that this response will make a difference.
Type A is a personality pattern that includes aggressiveness, ambitiousness, competitiveness, he.illity, impatience and a sense of time urgency.
Role overload occurs when one must perform too many tasks in too short a time period, and it is a common stressor for managers, especially in today's downsized organizations. Boundary roles are positions in
which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public.
Burnout is a combination of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people in some capacity.
Behavioural reactions to stress are problem solving, modified performance, withdrawal, and the use of addictive substances. Problem solving—delegation, time management, talking it out, asking for help and
search for alternatives.
Psychological reactions to stress involve emotions and thought processes rather than overt behavior, although these reactions are frequently revealed in the individual's speech and actions. Defense mechanisms are
psychological attempts to reduce the anxiety associated with stress. (Rationalization, projection, displacement, reaction formation, compensation)
Motivation is the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. Intrinsic motivation stems from the direct relationship between the worker and thz task and is usually self-applied. (Feelings of
achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and competence) Extrinsic motivation stems from the work environment external to the task and is usually appLed by someone other than the person being
motivated. (pay, fringe benefits, company policies and supervision)
Maslow's hierarchy of needs: 1) physiological needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive, such as food, water, oxygen, and shelter. 2) saf:4y needs include security, stability, freedom from anxiety and a
structured and ordered environment. Safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules, job security, a comfortable work environment, pension and insurance plans and pay. 3) belongingness needs include social
interaction, affection, love, companionship and friendship. 4) esteem needs include feelings of adequacy, competence, independence, strengd. and confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these
characteristics by others. Opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility. Awards, promotions, prestigious job titles, professional recognition. 5) self-actualization needs are desire
to develop one's true potential as an individual to the fullest extent and to express one's skills, talents, and emotions in a manner that is most personally fulfilling. Absorbing jobs with the potential for creativity and
growth as well as a relaxation of structure to permit self-development and personal progression.
David Mcdelland's theory of needs —the specific behavioral consequences of needs, under what conditions are certain needs likely to result in particular patterns of motivation. Needs for achievement: a strong
desire to perform challenging tasks well. [Sales people, entrepreneurs] Needs for affiliation: desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships. [Social workers] Needs for power:
desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression. [Journalism]
Process theories concentrate on how motivation occurs. Expectancy theory is the belief that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job. [Expectancy:
the probability that a particular first level outcome can be achieved. Instrumentality: reward will be followed if first level outcome achieved. Valence: the extent to which they are attractive or unattractive to the
individuaL Outcomes are consequences that follow work behavior.]
Goal setting is a motivation technique that uses specific, challenging, and acceptable goals and provides feedback to enhance performance. [Specific, challenging, committed] Feedback should be accurate, specific,
credible, and timely, that enables the person to compare current performance with the goal Mechanism: they direct attention towards goal-relevant activities; they lead to greater effort; they increase and prolong
persistence; they lead to the discovery and use of task-relevant strategies for goal attainment.
Learning goals are process-oriented goals that focus on learning and enhance understanding of a task and the use of task strategies. Performance goals are outcome-oriented goals that focus on the achievement of
specific performance outcomes.
The goal of job design is to identify the characteristics that make some tasks more motivating than others and to capture these characteristics in the design of jobs. It's an attempt to capitalize on intrinsic
Job characteristics model: there are 5 core job characteristics that have particular strong potential to affect worker motivation—skill variety, autonomy, task significa*Ice, task identity and feedback.
Skill variety is the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents.
Autonomy is the freedom to schedule one's own work activities and decide work procedures.
Task significance is the impact that a job has on the lives or work of other people in or out of the organization.
Task identity is the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end.
Feedback is dear information about the effectiveness of one's work performance.
Motivation potential score= (skill variety +task identity +task significance)/3 * autonomy * feedback
Psychological states: work will be intrinsically motivating when it is perceived as meaningful, when the worker feels responsible for the outcomes of the work, and when the worker has knowledge about his or her
work progress. Outcomes: high intrinsic motivation; high grown satisfaction; high general job satisfaction; high work effectiveness.
Moderators: 1) growth-need strength is the extent to which an individual wants his or her work to contribute to personal growth, learning, and development. 2) knowledge and skills 3) satisfaction with the work
Job enrichment is the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement. It includes combining tasks, establishing external and internal client relationships, reducing
supervision or reliance on others, forming work teams and making feedback more direct.
Job involvement is a cognitive state of psychological identification with one's job and the importance of work to one's total self-image.
A group is a collection of individuals who interact with each other to achieve common goals.
Formal group is established by organ