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Rotman Commerce

Organizations – social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Job Characteristics Model: Core Job Characteristics: Autonomy(flexibility in scheduling Social inventions → presence of people. Group effort → practice effective teamwork one’s own work activities and deciding work proced), Skill variety(variety of job using OB – understanding ppl & managing them to work effectively; how orgs can survive (by various skills/talent), Task significance (impact/ importance of the job to others), Task being motivated to join/remain in org, work reliably – productive, quality, service, willing to identity(extent of doing a complete piece of work from beginning to end), learn, upgrade, be flexible & innovative) & adapt to change; attitudes & behaviours of Feedback(feedback on performance effectiveness)./ Psych States: experienced individual & groups in orgs. Goals of OB: predict, explain, manage OB meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of work, knowledge of Management – getting things accomplished in the org through others – manage behaviour results of work activities/Outcomes: high internal motivation. Growth sat., job sat., work Classical view – high specializatn of labour, intensive coordination, centralized decision effectiveness makin. To maintain ctrl: few workers, except for lower level jobs – close supervision > Job design/enrichment: design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation (quality of working life, machine pacing job involvement-importance of work to one’s self image)/ done by: combining tasks, Taylor’s(specialization of labour, rule of thumb) Scientific management– (job design) establish external &internal client relationships, reduce supervision/reliance on others (ex: determine optimum degree of specialization & standardization. Devlop instructions define worker checks own work), form teams, make direct feedback. Probs: poor diagnosis, lack work proced., standardize worker mov’t & breaks for max efficiency. Bureacracy (weber)- of desire/skill, demand for rewards, union resistance, supervisory resistance strict command chain, detailed rules, high specializn, centralized power, selctn&promtn Personality – stable set of psychological characteristics that influence interaction, feeling, based on techn competc thinking, behaviour (developed from genetics & long term learning history, can change with Hawthorne studies – in hawthorne plant, concerned with impact of fatigue, rest pauses, experience) lighting on productivity – they added breaks, lighting and saw productivity increase ( Interactionist – org is a function of both disposition &situation.. Person-situation debate. research by Mayo n Roethlizberg) Hawthorne effect - changes in participants' behavior Situational approach – work environment predicts/explains behavior, charac. Of org during the course of a study may be "related only to the special social situation and social (rewards, punish) influcne feeling, attitude, behaviour treatment they received Big Five – extraversion(job satsf): extent outgoing vs. shy. High: sociable,energetic,joyful, job Human relations mvmnt – critique of classical mgt&bureacy tht advocated mgt style tht with interpersonal interaction. Neuroticism (motivation)-degree appropriate emotional were more participative& employee need oriented. Probs:1. strict specialization > control. Low: self confident, esteem. High: depression, selfdoubt, stress/Agreeableness- incompatible with human needs for growth&achievement, lead employee alienation 2. extent frndly&approachable. High: warm, considerate, cooperative, helpful, job for Centralization>fail to take adv of lower lvl creative ideas&knowledge, org fail to learn from interaction, helping. Low: cold, intolerant,uncaring/. Conscientious(motiv, job satisf):degree mistakes 3. Strict rules>employees adopt min acceptable lvl of performance 4. Strong responsible&achievement oriented. High: orderly, disciplined, hrd working. Low: specialization>employees lose sight of overall goals of org, divorced from true needs of irresponsible, lazy, implusive /Openess to experience extent flexibly&receptive to new customers – red tape mentality ideas; high:creativity,innovation, intellectual, curious, imaginative. Low:favor status quo, Contingency approach – appropriate mgt style depends on demands of situation dull. Job satisfaction-collection of attitudes that workers hav abt their jobs. Facet Self-monitoring: extent which ppl observe & regulate how they appear & behave in social satisfaction:more/less satisfied with facets of job, overall satisfaction:summary indicator of settings. High: job requiring role play, self presentation, communicative skills, flexibility attitude toward job Locus of control: set of beliefs abt whether behavior is controlled by internal/external forces. Predictors and causes of job satisfaction:1) discrepancy-job sat. stems from discrepancy External: fate, luck, powerful people. Internal: self initiative, personal actions, between job outcomes wanted and outcomes perceived to be obtained/ 2)fairness- effort=achievement, control what happens, career plan) distributive fairness (receive what I think I deserve), equity theory(job sat. stems from Self esteem: degree person has positive self evaluation. High: favourable self image, job comparing one’s input+output with another’s), procedural fairness(process used to satisfy, perform, resilient to strains. Low: uncertain abt opinion, impact by events, dnt react determine work outcome is reasonable), interactional fairness (ppl feel they hv received to stres. Behavioural plasticity theory: low self esteem are more susceptible to respectful & informative communication abt outcome)/ 3)disposition(personality contributes externl&social influences. To boost: give autonomy, decision making, interesting work. to job sat)/ 4) Mood(longerlived less intense)&emotion(shortlived intense feeling by event) Positive affectivity – experience + emotions&moods&view world in + light, including self and Attitude-stable evaluative tendancy to respond consistently to some specific object others(cheerful, sociable situation,person, category of people. Attitude=belief+value(tendancy to prefer certain state Negative affectivity-exp – emotions…etc. distressed, experience more stress at work n of affairs over others) strain, counterproductive Outcomes of job satisfaction: less absenteeism, less turnover, higher performance (Js > Proactive personality- trait of individual’s belief in his ability to perform successfully in motiv > perfm), challenging situations, it’s motivational not affective trait bec it reflects belief he can Organizational citizenship behavior(voluntary informal behavior contributes to orgs succeed in tasks rather how he feels abt himself, developed in lifetime with experience in effectiveness, unlikely to be rewarded, spontaneous), customer satisfaction success/failure in tasks. High: adapt to uncertain, adverse situations, high job satsif, Organizational commitment: attitude reflecting strength of linkage between employee&org, performance remain in org. 1) affectiv
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