WEEK1 chp1 OB is the field of behavioral science that seeks No planning about how to coordinate work Mood and Emotional contagion tendency for moods and various factors motivate. They can be contrast with process theories.
knowledge of how individuals act, think, and feel in organizations Component focus: individuals become overly specialized and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group. Need (what) and process (how) theories are complementary rather
by studying individual and group processes. know a lot about their own topic, but can’t take advantage of Emotional regulation requirement for people to conform to than contradictory.
The emphasis is on studying attitudes and behaviors. synergies within group certain “display rules” in their job behavior in spite of their true Moslow’s Hierarchical of needs of motivation that specifies that
Includes the study of how events in the external environment 2.Motivation losses: Occurs when individuals don’t work as hard mood or emotions. the lowest level unsatisfied need have the greatest motivating
affect organizations in groups as they would on their own Challenging work Adequate compensation Career opportunities potential.
Goals of OB: Predicting, Explaining, Managing organizational Social loafing/freeriding: the tendency for people to put in less Relationship with coworkers Biological and Physiological needs: air, food, shelter etc.
behaviour. effort when individual inputs are not visible (think tug of war) Performance Safety needs: protection, law, security etc.
History of OB 3 Sucker effect: occurs when people have been in groups where Absenteeism down Belongingness needs: family, relationship, affection etc.
1.Classical viewpoint： An early prescription on management that others were social loafing; don’t want to do work on other’s behalf Turnover intentions down Esteem needs: achievements, reputation, responsibility
advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and 3.Ability losses: Occurs when individuals people become less able Customer satisfaction up Selfactualization needs: personal growth, fulfillment
entralized decision making. in groups than when they are alone Organizational commitment up ∙When needs at a particular level of the hierarchy are satisfied, the
Frederick Taylor (18561915) “Scientific Management” system Distraction: the tendency for people to pay less attention to what Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) up individual turns his or her attention to the next higher level.
for using research to determine the optimum degree of they are doing when in the presence of others Job satisfaction does NOT predict performance. Why? ∙A satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator.
specialization and standardization of and work tasks. How to solve Plan ahead ∙Performance is complex and often a function of ability and Selfactualization needs, however, become stronger as they are
Standardization of job design ∙Time spent for planning and execution are inversely motivation.∙Job satisfaction unlikely to affect abilities gratified.
Specialization of labor related∙Budget time for communication∙Plan ahead and readjust (presumably unchanging), but will affect motivation
Max Weber (18641920) “BureaucracyM”：Means of rationally later∙Assign roles in first meeting (e.g., final arbiter)∙Anticipate Generational differences in values：
managing complex organizations conflict and disagreement∙Assign a timebreaker∙Match division of Motivation chp5
Highly structured: ∙Centralization of power∙Single supervisor; labor to evaluation criteria and coordinate The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
chain of command∙Rules and regulations WEEK2chp4 ∙Effort: How hard a person tries
2.Human relations view of OB Job satisfaction: Collection of attitudes that people have about ∙Persistence: How long a person tries
∙Emerged as a critique of the classical view (192030) their jobs. Attitudes are stable evaluative tendencies to respond ∙Direction: Towards beneficial goal (to whom?) Alderfer’s ERG Theory ： A threelevel hierarchical need theory of
∙Concerned with the social and psychological needs of employees consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category ∙Goal: The objective that a person is trying to achieve motivation (existence, relatedness, growth)extrinsic to intrinsic
Mayo and the Hawthorne studies of people. Intrinsic motivation (internal reason): Stems from the direct motivation that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy.
Hawthorne Plants of Western Electric Co. Two aspects of satisfaction: relationship between the worker and the task and is usually self Differences between Alderfer and Maslow
Relay Assembly Room Study (192729) 1.Facet (dimension) satisfaction applied. ∙ERG allows for movement up and down the hierarchy
Five female employees Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee ∙Sheer interest in the job itself∙Feeling of achievement, ∙ERG theory does not assume that lowerlevel needs must be
Effects of length of workday & week, & use of rest periods on to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job: accomplishment, challenge, mastering skills∙Engaging in gratified before upperlevel needs become operative
productivity & fatigue ∙The work itself ∙Coworkers or boss ∙Compensation ∙Career meaningful work ∙ERG theory assumes that if the higherlevel needs are not satisfied,
Initial conditions: 48 hours/ week (MondaySaturday, 95), no opportunities Extrinsic Motivation (external reason): that stems from the individuals will increase their desire for the satisfaction of lower
breaks (illustrated how psychological and social processes affect 2.Overall satisfaction work environment external to the task. It is usually applied by level needs
productivity and work adjustment) ∙Overall satisfaction is an average or total of the attitudes others. the more lowerlevel needs are gratified, the
3.Contingency view individuals hold toward their job as a whole. ∙Two employees ∙Pay, benefits, bonuses∙Praise∙Promotions more higherlevel need satisfication is desired.
∙Much of contemporary research offers answers to organizational might express the same level of overall satisfaction, but for Job performance: 2. The less higherlevel needs are gratified, the
problems by saying : “It depends.” different reasons Personality traits such as big five and core selfevaluation also more lowerlevel need satisfication is desired.
∙No “best way” that applies to all situations What predict job satisfaction? predict job performance. Of course and McClelland ‘s theory of needs
∙An appropriate management style depends on interactions (e.g., Disposition/Personality Role of intelligence: general cognitive ability and emotional A nonhierarchical need theory (3)
context x behavior or the person x situation). Discrepancy: A theory that job satisfaction stems from the intelligence ∙Achievement：A strong desire to perform challenging tasks well.
∙National culture and ethnic diversity have proven to be some of discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes General cognitive ability (mental ability): a person’s basic High need for achievement exhibit:
the most important contingency variables in OB research. that are perceived to be obtained. informationprocessing capacities and cognitive resources. A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be
Potential productivity is a function of the inputs (individual Fairness Equity theory: that job satisfaction stems from a Emotional intelligence: the ability to understand and manage one’s taken for outcomes.
characteristic of team member and environment) comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one own and other’s feelings and emotions. A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for
In groups, process losses occur receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another Factors contributing to individual job performance calculated risks.
Process loss = difference between potential productivity and the person or group. Amount of effort, persistence of effort, direction of A desire for performance feedback
actual productivity Procedural fairness: that occurs when the process used to effort▯motivation ▯ personality, general cognitive ability task Eg：Sales jobs, entrepreneurial positions, academia
Groups encounter various types of problems (3) determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. understanding, emotional intelligence chance▯performance ∙Affiliation：A strong desire to establish and maintain friendly,
1.Coordination losses Occurs when individuals use strategies in Interactional Fairness: that occurs when people feel they have 3 THEORIES OF MOTIVATION compatible interpersonal relationships.
groups that work for individuals received respectful and informative communication about an 1.Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers; People with a high need for affiliation have ∙an ability to
Segmentation focus: individuals focus solely on division of labor. outcome. process theories are concerned with how learn social networking quickly∙a tendency to communicate frequently with others. Goal feedback: ongoing, accurate, specific, credible, and timely procedures. Compassionate and cooperative ▯▯Suspicious and antagonistic
Eg：Social work, customer relations, entertainment Goal orientation: an individual’s goal preferences in achievement High autonomy: A telephone installer who schedules his or her own Neuroticism (Emotional stability): This is degree to which a person
∙Power：A strong desire to influence others, making a significant situations. work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular has appropriate emotional control.
impact or impression. Learning goal orientation: a preference to learn new things and installation Sensitive and nervous ▯▯Stable and confident
People with a high need for power seek out social settings in which develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and Low autonomy: A telephone operator who must handle calls as they Warning about personality
they can be influential. mastering new situations. come according to a routine, highly specified procedure “Personality” explanations often overused or exaggerated
Power can be used to serve the power seeker, other people, or the Performanceprove goal orientation: a preference to obtain ∙Feedback (Knowledge of results of activity): Information about People are subject to the fundamental attribution error/bias
organization. favourable judgment about the outcome of one’s performance. the effectiveness of one’s work performance. ∙Personality used to resolve ambiguity and uncertainty about other
Eg：Politics, journalism, management Performanceavoid goal orientation: a preference to avoid High feedback: An electronics factory worker who assembles a people’s intentions
McClelland predicts that people will be motivated to seek out and negative judgments about the outcome of one’s performance. radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly ∙We’re selective in using personality to explain our own Behavior
perform well in jobs that match their needs (fit model) Distal goal: longterm or end goal Low feedback: An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio People are unique, and have a collection of semiindependent and
Process theories of work motivetion:(Expectancy& Goal setting Proximal goal: shortterm goal or subgoal. and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests perpetually interacting traits
theory) Motivation through job design Chp6 and adjusts it People don’t like to feel pigeonholed
1.Expectancy theory： First developed and applied to the work Job design: the structure, content, and configuration of a person’s Motivating potential score=(skill variety+task identity+task There is no “one best” personality – depends on the situation
setting by Victor Vroom. work tasks and roles. significance)/3*autonomy*job feedback 2.personality vs. situation
says that motivation is determined by outcomes people expect to Increases in these psychological states result in increased ∙Trait perspective
occur as a result of their actions on the job. Increase motivation by The goal of job design is to identify the characteristics that make personal work and outcomes: High intrinsic motivation, High Personality predicts behavior
boosting expectancies, clarify instrumentalist (reward some tasks more motivating than others and to capture these quality work performance, high satisfaction, Low absenteeism ∙Situational perspective
contingencies), appreciate differences in preferences (valences). characteristics in the design of jobs. An attempt to capitalize on and turnover Situation predicts behavior (i.e. “strong” situation)
Three main elements of the model: intrinsic motivation Job design can help identify characteristics that Job Enrichment: the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, Reviews of the research literature have concluded that the
∙Expectancy: links effort and performance (the probability that a make some tasks more psychologically motivating than others quality of working life, and job involvement. correlation between personality and behavior is between .2.4
particular firstlevel outcome can be achieved)1 level outcome: Job scopebreadth; depth: professor high scope; assembly line low Job involvement: a cognitive state of psychological identification (Mischel, 1968; Nisbett, 1980)
Outcomes that are of particular interest to the organization E.g., scope. with one’s job and the importance of work to one’s total selfmage ∙Interactionist perspective
productivity, attendance, etc. Increasing job scope: assign stretch assignment: offer employees WEEK4chp2 Behaviour = personality x interpretation of the situation
∙Instrumentality: links performance and reward (the probability challenging oppo. To broaden their skills by working on a variety of Personality is a trait (characteristics are relatively consistent across 3.Locus of control
that a particular firstlevel outcome will be followed by a particular tasks with new responsibilities. Job rotation: rotating employees to time and place). Refers to individuals’ beliefs about the location of factors that
secondlevel outcome) 2 level outcome: Outcomes that are different tasks and jobs an organization ∙It refers to a person’s general style of interacting with the world, control life.
personally relevant to the worker Eg, pay, sense of accomplishment, Job Characteristics Model proposes 5 “core” job characteristics especially other people. External locus of control: Believe that rewards/life events are the
acceptance by peers, fatigue, etc. that have a psychological impact on workers. ∙Useful for making sense of and predicting behaviour. results of factors beyond their control
∙Valence: the expected value of work outcomes; the extent to which 5 Job Characteristics (Psychological states) Dimension of personality (4) Internal locus of control: Believe that rewards/life events are the
they are attractive or unattractive. Valence of a particular first ∙Skill variety (Experienced meaningfulness of work)：The 1.Big five personality dimensions (OCEAN) results of factors within their control
level outcome = ∑ instrumentalities x secondlevel valences opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and Openness to experience：This is the degree to which a person thinks Ppl with Internal locus of control:
2.Goal setting Theory：(Developed by Gary Latham and Ed talents. flexibly and is receptive to new ideas ∙Are more satisfied with their jobs
Locke)A process theory that states that goals are motivational when High skill variety: The operator of a garage who does electrical Curious and original ▯▯Consistent and cautious ∙Earn more money
they are specific challenging, when organizational members are repair, rebuilds engines, bodywork, and interacts with customers Conscientiousness: This is the degree to which a person is ∙Achieve higher organizational positions
committed to them, and when feedback about progress toward goal Low skill variety: A body shop worker who sprays paint eight hours responsible and achievementoriented. 4. Selfmonitoring
attainment is provided. a day Dependable and responsible ▯▯Easy going and impulsive Refers to the extent to which people observe and regulate how they
Goal specificity: SMART goals ∙Task identity (Experienced meaningfulness of work): The extent appear and behave in social settings and relationships
Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Timetargeted to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from (Eg: Public appearances vs. private realities)
Goal challenge: is best when is pegged to the competence of beginning to end. High selfmonitors : Regulating behaviour and selfpresentation
individual workers and increased as the particular task is mastered. High task identity: A worker who designs a piece of furniture, according to social and interpersonal cues
One practical way to do this is to base initial goals on past selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it ∙Emotional expressiveness, persuasiveness
performance. Low task identity: A worker in a factory who operates a tool to make ∙Better performance, but less committed to the organization
Goals commitment: really are not goals and cannot improve table legs (eg. Common in politics, acting, etc.)
performance unless and individual accepts them and is committed to ∙Task significance (Experienced meaningfulness of work): The Low selfmonitors : Less likely to regulate behaviour in accordance
working toward them. Especially important when goals are impact that a job has on other people. Extraversio: This is the extent to which a person is with a particular social or interpersonal setting
challenging and difficult to achieve. High task significance: Caring for patients in ICU outgoing versus shy. 5.Selfesteem The degree to which a person has a positive self
Some of the factors that might affect commitment to Low task significance: Sweeping floor in ICU Sociable and talkative ▯▯Solitary and reserved evaluation
challenging, a specific goals, including participation ∙rewards ∙ ∙Autonomy (Experienced responsibility for work outcomes): The Agreeableness: This is the extent to which a person is friendly and Behavioural plasticity theory people with low selfesteem tend to be
supportiveness freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work approachable. more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high selfesteem. thoughts and feelings to others. Actors emphasize the role of the situation 2)Some emerge to occupy informal leadership roles
Proactive behavior: Taking initiative to improve current There is only so much information we can process Observers emphasize dispositional causes 1.Trait theories of leadership: Theories that consider personality,
circumstances or creating new ones. People as “cognitive misers” 3.Selfserving bias social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from
Proactive personality We use cognitive shortcuts The tendency for individuals to take credit for successful outcomes nonleaders. Big five:：3 ：：agreeableness, extraversion, and
A stable personal disposition that reflects disposition that reflects a We use heuristics: fundamental attribution error, selfserving bias, while denying responsibility for failures. openness to experience are related to leadership behaviours.
tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and halo effect Can overcome the tendency for actors to attribute their own Intelligence is related to leadership, but not as strongly as
situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment. We use categories: we categorize ourselves and others into behaviour to situational factors (if the outcome is good) previously thought.
Positive affectivity (PA): Propensity to view the world, including categories based on their characteristics (e.g., gender, occupation, Person perception in HRM Some research has shown that effective leaders are high on
oneself and other people, in a positive light. race, role, nationality, etc.) Rater errors emotional intelligence.
Negative affectivity (NA): Propensity to view the world, including We tend to perceive our own group as more favorable than others ∙Leniency:Perceive performance of ratees as especially good This theory suggests that you need to figure out who has leadership
oneself and other people, in a negative light. (“ingroup bias”) ∙ traits and select them as leaders. It assumes that being a leader is not
General Selfefficacy (GSE) a general trait that refers to an Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of something you can learn
individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a the group to which that person belongs Problems with this theory 1) Trait theory is better at predicting
variety of challenging situations. More specifically, a generalization that all people of a certain leader emergence than leader effectiveness 2) NO universal traits
Core selfevaluation: abroad personality concept that consists of belief/race/age group, etc. have a certain behavioral trait or found that predict leadership in all situations
more specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about characteristic. Harshness:Perceive performance of ratees as especially Strategic leadership: leadership that involves the ability to
themselves and their selfworth. Ingroup/outgroup bias ineffective/poor anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and
Perception ： chp3 the process of interpreting the messages of our ∙Ingroup/outgroup bias stereotypes people ∙Central tendency:Tendency to evaluate most ratees’ performance as work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future
senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. We categorize ourselves and others average for the organization. ( title: manager, executive, supervisor, and
∙Depends on the stimulus and our interpretation of it ∙Textbook talks about this a lot: ∙Similartome effect:Giving more favourable evaluations to people department head)
People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not Social identity theory: people form perceptions of themselves based who are similar to the rater in terms of background or attitudes Traits:∙Consideration∙Initiating structure: the degree to which a
on reality itself on their characteristics and membership in social groups ∙Halo effect leader concentrate on group goal attainment.
The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally Stereotypes: assume people have certain characteristics by virtue of Primary effect: Consideration and initiating are not incompatible：Consideration
important some category that they fall into. Halo effect tends to be more strongly related to leader satisfaction and job
Perception can be biased – both in terms of how individuals process Person perception and workplace diversity Very strong bias to We tend to categorize people as globally positive or negative Seeing satisfaction. The effects of consideration and initiating structure
inputs and individuals make judgments about situations or people prefer our own group (textbook calls this “intergroup bias”) someone positively on one trait affects how you see them on other often depend on characteristics of the task, the employee, and the
Components of perception Attribution theory = Making judgments about others traits setting in which work is performed.
A perceiver (experience, needs or motivational state, emotional ∙When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine the For example, more attractive people are often thought to possess ∙Leader reward behavior: the leader’s use of compliments, tangible
state), a target that is being perceived, and some situational context cause of it: either dispositional or situational social desirable traits, be happier, be better parents, live a more benefits, and deserved special treatment.
in which the perception is occurring. ∙Attribution is the process of assigning causes or motives to people’s fulfilled life, etc. ∙Leader punishment behavior: the leader’s use of reprimands or
Perceptual defense the tendency for the perceptual system to defend behavior Biases in perception and attribution affect organizations unfavourable task assignments an the active withholding of rewards.
the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. Dispositional attributions：explanations for behavior Ethnic profiling ∙Contingent leader reward behavior was found to be positively
Social identity theory based on an actor’s personality or intellect. A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled related employees’ perceptions, attitudes, and behavior.
A theory states that people form perceptions of themselves based on Situational attributions：Explanations for behavior based on an out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive 2. Situational theory of leadership: In contrast to the trait theory,
their personal characteristics and memberships in social categories. actor’s external situation or environment. inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation. the situational theory is the effectiveness of a leadership style is
Model ∙We assign/attribute causes or motives to people’s behaviour Employment interview, performance reviews contingent on the setting. It believes that specific behaviours
Unfamiliar target encountered – openness to target cues – familiar ∙We assess cues over time and in relationship to situation Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ differentiate leaders from nonleaders. Implies you can train leaders.
cues encountered – target categorized – cue selectivity – Consistency cues: evaluate cues for consistency over time judgments of applicants. The effectiveness of many leadership behaviours do not generalize
categorization strengthened Consensus cues: evaluate compared to the behavior of others ：： How to solve across all situations
B asic biases in person perception Distinctiveness cues: evaluate whether engaging in a behavior ∙Know the value of diversity for organizations! Leadership depends on the personality of followers, type of task,
Primacy effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues across a variety of situations Research shows lower costs, better personnel recruitment, better characteristics of the organization, etc.
or first impressions. Biases in attribution reputation, creativity, problem solving and flexibility. Fiedler’s contingency theory and cognitive resource theory∙
Recency effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues 1.Fundamental attribution bias ∙Be aware of, understand these errors and everyone’s potential to Contingency theory: Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the
or last impressions. The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and make them without malice. association between the leadership orientation and group
Reliance on Central traits: Personal characteristics of a target overestimate the influence of internal factors when making ∙Put in place mechanisms to reduce bias. effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for
person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. (E.g., physical judgments about the behavior of others. In general, we tend to blame exerting influence.
appearance, intellectual capacity, etc) the other person first, not the situation. Week7 Chp 9 ∙Leadership: the influence that particular individuals Least preferred coworker: a current or past coworker with whom
Implicit personality theories: Personal theories that people have 2. Actorobserver effect exert on the goal achievement of others in an organization context. a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task. (Despite the
about which personality characteristics go together. The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the ∙Leaders motivate others to perform 1)Some are formal or assigned high LPC was difficult work with, the leader can still find positive
Projection: The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own actor’s behaviour differently leadership roles qualities in him or her/ low LPC is not) High LPC are motivated to maintain interpersonal relations, while Potential advantages of participative leadership: not provide feedback, goals. Take the approach of “letting people 2.Discuss how Canada compares to other countries in terms of
low LPC leaders are motivated to accomplish the task. Motivation: participation can increase the motivation of employees. do their job” global leadership and explain any differences.
There are observed behaviours, while the LPC score is evidently an Participation permits them to contribute to the establishment of work ∙This style is not very effective and is often frustrating for employees Canada has more global leaders than some big countries like the
attitude of the leader toward work relationship. goals and to decide how they can accomplish these goals. Intrinsic d) Transformational leadership: Create an inspirational vision to United States.This is because middle economy countries like
Situational favourableness: motivation will be motivated. motivate team members. Appeal to values and ideals. Are usually Canada, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium and others are
a) Leadermember relationship: when the relationship is good, the Quality: two heads are better than one. This occurs either because very charismatic. Inspire participation. Acknowledge individuals – dependent on foreign trade and must be able to understand and
leader is in a favourable situation. b) Task structure: when the task the boss is not a professional or because the boss’s knowledge has often provide coaching. Ask for ideas, input, and suggestions. empathize with persons in other cultures. Canadians learn from the
structure is clear. c) Position power: the more position power the become outdated./empower employees to take direct action to solve ∙four key dimensions: intellectual stimulation, individual cradle to take into account other perspectives. In addition, living in a
leader holds, the more favourable is the leadership situation. d) The problem without checking every detail with boss. consideration, inspirational motivation, and the charisma.∙ multicultural environment like Canada is excellent preparation for
model indicates that a task orientation (low LPC) is most effective Acceptance: this is especially likely when issues of fairness are Charisma: the ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from becoming a global leader.
when the leadership situation is very favourable or unfavourable. e) involved. followers and thus have the potential for strong influence among 3.What is culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory and
High LPC is most effective in conditions of medium favorability. Potential problem of participative leadership: them. ∙Charismatic leaders often act to create an impression of describe the six global leadership dimensions identified by the
Research evidence: it does not seem to be correlated with the other a) time and energy b) loss of power c) lack of receptivity of personal success and accomplishment global project.
personality measures or predictive of specific leader behavior./ this knowledge: when leader is distrusted or when a poor labour climate This style works by changing the beliefs and attitudes of employees A culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory refers to belief
is the small sample size that researchers used in many of the studies exists. to correspond to the new vision and inspiring them to perform systems about the characteristics that contribute to outstanding
Cognitive resource theory CRT: a leadership theory that focuses Vroom and Jago’s situation model of participation : beyond expectations leadership that are shared among individuals in common cultures.
on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources ∙A stands for autocratic, C for consultative and G for group; I In most cases: The six global leadership dimensions are: charismatic/valuebased;
(intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective indicates an individual, and II indicates that a group is involved. Teams led by democratic leaders are more satisfied teamoriented; participative; humaneoriented; autonomous; and