cheat sheet for 260 final exam

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Rotman Commerce
Katy Decelles

Group: Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.Formal group: Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals.Informal group: Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members.Stages of group development: Forming; Storming (conflict, criticism, confrontation, roles, responsibility, problem); Norming (social consensus, compromise, interdependence, norms, more cohesive); Performing (achievement, creativity, mutual assistance); Adjourning (disperse, rites, rituals, emotional support)Group structure: refers to the characteristics of the stable social org of a group. Group size: satisfaction (smaller group better satisfaction, can cooperate better, more participation); performance Group tasks:Additive: Tasks in which group perf is dept on the sum of the performance of individual group members. (e.g construction worker); Disjuntive :group perf is dept on the performance of best group members. (e.g members good knowledge of Excel) Conjunctive: is limited by the performance of the poorest group members. (e.g assembly line operation)Diversity (creative, open) Process losses: Group perf difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups.Consequences: Communication barrier changing working culture (casual Friday) ; Process losses: Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger group.Roles: Positions in group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them.(conflict:incompatible role expectation)Status : The rank, social position or prestige accorded to group members.(informal&formal)Norms: Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each others. (dress;reward allocation;performance)Cohesiveness: The degree to which a group is esp attractive to its members. (Threat&competition, success, member diversity, size, toughness of initiation; more participation in group activities, more conformity, more success)Adv of group decision making: More complete info;pSharing of expertise, experience, diversity;Pooling of resources;Increased quality (accuracy);Increased acceptance of the decision.Disadv:Ambiguous responsibility-bystander effect;Slow;Likelihood of intra-group conflict;Pressure to conform to norms and leaders;Likelihood of extreme decisions;CostlySolutions :Training discussion leaders ; Stimulatiing and managing controversy(Devils advocate a person appointed to identify and challenge the weakness of a proposed plan or strategy;Traditional and electronic brainstorming :An attempt to increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than evaluation)Nominal group technique: A structured group decision making technique in which ideas are generated without group interaction and then systematically evaluated by the group.D elpi technique: a method of pooling a large number of expert judgements by using a series of increasingly refined question.Groupthink: The capacity for group pressure to damage the mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement of decision-making groups.Groupshift (riskyconservative shift): The tendency for groups to make riskier (less risky) decisions than the average risk initially advocated by
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