OB began in the human relations movement in the 1920s
Scientific Management Taylor The Classical View: high specialization of labour, intensive
coordination, and centralized decision making
Elton Mayo Hawthorne Experiments; people produce more when given special attention
The human relations view the adoption of management styles that are participative and
oriented towards the needs of employees.
Chapter 2 Personality & Learning
Employee learning must be continuous and lifelong for the company to thrive in the rapidly
Personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way a
person interacts with his environment. A persons general style of interacting with the world
Situational Approach characteristics of the organizational setting, such as rewards and
punishments, influence behaviour.
Interactionist Approach OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation (personality
Self-Monitor the level a person regulate how they behave in social settings and relationships
(for example, lawyers and politicians are high self-monitors and kanye west is a low self
Perception a process of interpreting the msgs of our senses to provide meaning to our
environment. Perception is selective and can be biased.
The Big Five Model:
1. Extraversion (Social vs. Shy)
2. Emotional Stability (Confident vs. Anxious) or Neuroticism
3. Agreeableness (Cooperative vs. Rude)
4. Conscientiousness (Responsible vs. Careless)
5. Openness to Experience (Curious vs. Dull)
CANOE Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and
Conscientiousness and Extraversion actually lead to higher incomes.
Locus of Control a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled by internal or
external forces (internals believe in hard work, externals believe in luck)
Behavioural Plasticity Theory people with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to
external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem.
Perception Chapter 3
Perceiver, target, and situation are the three components to perception. Past experience often
influence the perceiver.
Social Identity Theory we categorize ourselves in terms of characteristics and
memberships in social categories, such as our nationality, religion, occupation, etc.
Perception is selective the perceiver doesnt use all the available cues, and is constant over
time, forming a homogeneous picture of the target person. Primary Effect
the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues.
Recency Effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions.
Central Traits personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest.
Appearance is one of those traits, and research shows that taller, more attractive, and non-
overweight people are more likely to get promoted and
paid more. This is an example of a bias in the workplace.
Implicit Personality Theory which personality characteristics go together, e.g. you expect
hardworking people to be honest, or a funny person to be lazy.
Projection the tendency to attribute ones own thoughts to others
Stereotyping generalizing about other people in a social category
Attribution Theory making judgements about others
Attribution the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples
behaviour, explaining their actions. They can be dispositional (attributed to their
characteristic such as intelligence, greed, etc.) or situational (external environment), such
as bad weather, poor advice, etc.
The cues that help us determine the cause of behaviour are:
Consistency cues high consistency leads to dispositional attributes (just who they are).
Consensus Cues reflect how a persons behaviour compares to others. Low consensus
behaviours are more dispositional
Distinctiveness Cues when something occurs across a variety of situations, it lacks
uniqueness so it might be dispositional, whereas if it varies across different situations, its
Of course, there are biases in attribution:
Fundamental Attribution Error we overemphasize dispositional explanations (e.g. its that
PERSONs fault, not the Situation).
Actor-Observer Effect actors emphasize the situation in explanation, such as the cause of a
Self-Serving Bias People tend to take credit for success and blame others for failure.
Many minorities say they do not receive credit for their work.
Women only hold 14.4% of corporate officer positions. Women are less likely to be promoted to
high managerial positions, and less likely to have their request for a firing granted.
However, they can take more leaves because of children.
A study shoes that companies with the highest representation of women in senior
management have a 35% higher return on equity than those with the fewest women.
Workplaces like Boeing and Corus show diversity by employing 21 deaf employees,
engaging in cultural lunches and workshops on stereotype awareness.
Trust is the willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another
party. Trust towards management depends on Ability, Benevolence, and Integrity. Ability =
management skills, Benevolence is the extent that management cares for the employees,
and Integrity is adhering to a set of values and principles that the employee findsacceptable. Trust is related to job satisfaction and performance, and currently its on the
Perceived Organizational Support the belief that their org values their contribution and
cares about their well being.
Organizational Support Theory employees who have strong perceptions of organizational
support feel an obligation to care about the organizations welfare and to help with the
organization achieve its objectives.
Investment in employees and recognition of their contributions lead to higher POS, which is
related to higher organizational commitment and performance.
- In an employment Interview, interviewees express a biased good side of them,
while the interview may have a biased ideal candidate stereotype already. Employers
will give less importance to positive things than negative.
- Primacy reactions - early perceptions or resume screening may have an undue impact
- Contrast Effects previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewers
perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences (good or
Perceptions of Recruitment/Selection
Signalling Theory job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals
about what its like to work in an organization.
Job Satisfaction a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.
Facet Satisfaction the tendency for an employee to be more or