Chapter #1: Organizational Behaviour and Management
Organizations: are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through
-Social inventions: organization’s essential characteristic is the coordinated
presence of people, not necessarily things. The field of organizational behaviour is
about understanding people and managing them to work effectively.
-Goal Accomplishment: individuals are assembled into organizations for a
reason. The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can
survive and adapt to change.
Behaviours necessary for survival and adaptation:
i) motivated to join and remain in the organization
ii) work reliably
iii) willing to continuously learn and upgrade knowledge
iv) be flexible and innovative (especially important)
-Group Effort: organizations depend on interaction and coordination among
people to accomplish their goals. The field of organizational behaviour is
concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork.
Organizational Behaviour: refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals
and groups in organizations.
-behaviours like cooperation, conflict, innovation, resignation, or ethical
lapses are important areas of study in the field of organizational behaviour.
-learning is important for employee behaviour and performance.
-communication is the process of exchanging information
-analysis followed by action is what organizational behaviour is all about.
Goals of OB:
-Predicting OB: predicting the behaviour of others is an essential
requirement for everyday life, both inside and outside of organizations.
-Explaining OB: why do certain events occur? In general, accurate
predictions precedes explanation. A particular behaviour could have multiple
causes. The ability to understand behaviour is a necessary prerequisite for
effectively managing it.
-Managing OB: if a behaviour can be predicted and explained, it can often be
controlled or managed. Management constitutes action. Management: the art of
getting things accomplished in organizations through others.
Early prescriptions concerning management: the classical view and the human
1) Classical View and Bureaucracy: constructed by experienced managers
or consultants, during the early 1900s, who took the time to write down
their thoughts on organizing.
a. Classical Viewpoint: an early prescription on management that
advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and
centralized decision making.
b. Scientific Management: Frederick taylor’s system for using
research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. He said that managers should
standardize workers’ movements and breaks for maximum
c. Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that
included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high
specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion
based on technical competence. Qualities:
i. A strict chain of command in which each member reports to
only a single superior.
ii. Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal
technical skills rather than nepotism and favouritism.
iii. A set of detailed rules, regulations, and procedurs ensuring
that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker
iv. The use of strict specialization to match duties with
v. The centralization of power at the top of the organization.
In exchange for this conformity, workers
would have a fair chance of being promoted
and rising in the power structure.
Classical view of management seemed to take
for granted an essential conflict of interest
between managers and employeeshuman
2) Human relations movement and a critique of bureaucracy
a. Hawthorne studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant
of western electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that
illustrated how psychological and social processes affect
productivity and work adjustment.
b. Human Relations movement: A critique of classical management
and bureaucracy that advocated management styles were more
participative and oriented toward employee needs.
The critique of bureaucracy addressed several specific problems:
Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth
and achievement. employee alienation from the organization and
Formal authorityfailure to take advantage of the creative ideas and
knowledge of lower-level members organization will fail to learn
from its mistakes, threatens innovation and adaptation.
Strict impersonal rulesMembers will adopt the minimum
acceptable level of performance that the rules specify.
Strong specializationemployees lose sight of overall goals of the
Contemporary Management- The Contigency approach -Conting