5 Pages

Rotman Commerce
Course Code
Sanford Fleming

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Chapter #1: Organizational Behaviour and Management Organizations: are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. -Social inventions: organization’s essential characteristic is the coordinated presence of people, not necessarily things. The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. -Goal Accomplishment: individuals are assembled into organizations for a reason. The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change. Behaviours necessary for survival and adaptation: i) motivated to join and remain in the organization ii) work reliably iii) willing to continuously learn and upgrade knowledge and skills iv) be flexible and innovative (especially important) -Group Effort: organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals. The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork. Organizational Behaviour: refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. -behaviours like cooperation, conflict, innovation, resignation, or ethical lapses are important areas of study in the field of organizational behaviour. -learning is important for employee behaviour and performance. -communication is the process of exchanging information -analysis followed by action is what organizational behaviour is all about. Goals of OB: -Predicting OB: predicting the behaviour of others is an essential requirement for everyday life, both inside and outside of organizations. -Explaining OB: why do certain events occur? In general, accurate predictions precedes explanation. A particular behaviour could have multiple causes. The ability to understand behaviour is a necessary prerequisite for effectively managing it. -Managing OB: if a behaviour can be predicted and explained, it can often be controlled or managed. Management constitutes action. Management: the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. Early prescriptions concerning management: the classical view and the human relations view. 1) Classical View and Bureaucracy: constructed by experienced managers or consultants, during the early 1900s, who took the time to write down their thoughts on organizing. a. Classical Viewpoint: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labor, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making. b. Scientific Management: Frederick taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. He said that managers should standardize workers’ movements and breaks for maximum efficiency. c. Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. Qualities: i. A strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superior. ii. Criteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than nepotism and favouritism. iii. A set of detailed rules, regulations, and procedurs ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker is. iv. The use of strict specialization to match duties with technical competence. v. The centralization of power at the top of the organization.  In exchange for this conformity, workers would have a fair chance of being promoted and rising in the power structure.  Classical view of management seemed to take for granted an essential conflict of interest between managers and employeeshuman relations movement. 2) Human relations movement and a critique of bureaucracy a. Hawthorne studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment. b. Human Relations movement: A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles were more participative and oriented toward employee needs. The critique of bureaucracy addressed several specific problems:  Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement.  employee alienation from the organization and its clients.  Formal authorityfailure to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level members  organization will fail to learn from its mistakes, threatens innovation and adaptation.  Strict impersonal rulesMembers will adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specify.  Strong specializationemployees lose sight of overall goals of the organization. Contemporary Management- The Contigency approach -Conting
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