RSM353H Consumer Behaviour Final Exam Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Rotman Commerce
Scott Hawkins

Ch.2 Perception 10/29/2012 5:46:00 PM Sensation: immediate response of our sensory receptors Perception: process by which these sensations are selected, organized and interpreted Three stages of perception Exposure Attention Interpretation Hedonic Consumption: multisensory, fantasy and emotional aspects of consumers interactions with products Sensory marketing: extra attention to the impact of sensation on our product experiences Trade Dress: companys granted exclusive color Kansei Engineering: philosophy that translates customers feelings into design elements Exposure: degree to which people notice a stimulus that is within range of their sensory receptors Psychophysics: science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world Absolute threshold: minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel Differential threshold: ability of a sensory system to detect changes in a stimulus or differences between two stimuli Just noticeable difference (JND): minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected Webers Law: the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change must be for it to be noticed o Constant increase/decrease necessary for the stimulus to be noticed = the minimal change in intensity of the stimulus required to be just noticeable to the person (JND)/the intensity of the stimulus before the change occurs Subliminal Perception Threshold = limen Stimuli that fall below the limen are called subliminal Subliminal perception: when stimulus is below the level of the consumers awareness Embeds: tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high speed photography or airbrushing Subliminal auditory (sound) techniques Attention: the extent to which the brains processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus Perceptual selectivity: people attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed Perceptual filters: based on consumers past experiences influence what they decide to process Perceptual vigilance: factor in selective exposure Perceptual defense: flip side of perceptual vigilance Adaptation: degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time Factors o Intensity o Duration o Discrimination o Exposure o Relevance Interpretation The meaning that people assign to sensory stimuli Schema: set of beliefs Priming: certain properties of a stimulus will more likely evoke a schema than others Gestalt Psychology: people derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli rather than from any individual stimulus Principle of closure: consumers tend to perceived an incomplete picture as complete Principle of similarity: consumers tend to group together objects that share similar physical characteristics Figure-ground principle: one part of a stimulus will dominate while other parts recede into the background Semiotics: correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning Object: product that is the focus of the message Sign: sensory imagery that represents the intended meanings of the object Interpretant: meaning derived Icon: sign that resembles the product in some way Symbol: sign that is related to a product through either conventional or agreed upon associations Hyperreality: becoming real of what is initially stimulation of hype Positioning strategy: fundamental part of a companys marketing efforts as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumers interpretation of its meaning Positioning dimensions Price leadership Attributes Product class Occasions Users Quality Ch3 Learning and Memory 10/29/2012 5:46:00 PM Cognitive Learning Theory Stresses the importance of internal mental processes Observational Learning: when people watch the actions of others and note the reinforcements they receive for their behaviours o Modeling: process of imitating the behaviour of others o Attention -> retention -> production -> motivation -> observational learning Role of memory in learning Memory: involves a process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed Encoding: information is placed in memory Storage: information is retained Retrieval: information stored in memory is found External inputs -> encoding -> storage -> retrieval Post-experience advertising: alter actual memories when it is very similar to or activates memories about the actual experience Encoding of information for later retrieval Sensory meaning: colour/shape Semantic meaning: symbolic associations Episodic memories: those that relate to events that are personally relevant Flashbulb memories: sudden trigger of memory recall Memory Systems o Sensory memory: permits storage of the information we receive from our senses Temporary If the information is retained for further processing, it passes through an attentional gate and is transferred to short-term memory o Short-term memory: stores information for a limited period of time and its capacity is limited RAM, working memory Input may be stored acoustically or semantically Chunking: information is stored by combining small pieces into larger ones
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