study notes for HRM test one.docx

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Rotman Commerce
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to get the best out of people, they must be managed well and requires leadership  management -Planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling.. The policies and practices involved in carrying out the “people” or human, resource aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding, and appraising. HR/Personnel duties of any manager  Conducting job analyses (determining the nature of each employee’s job)  Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates  Selecting job candidates  Orienting and training new employees  Managing wages and salaries (compensating employees)  Providing incentives and benefits  Appraising performance  Communicating (interviewing, counseling, disciplining)  Training and developing managers  Building employee commitment Personnel mistakes  Hire the wrong person for the job  Experience high turnover  people not doing their best  Waste time with useless interviews  discriminatory actions  unsafe practices  salaries are unfair and inequitable relative to others in the organization  lack of training to undermine your department’s effectiveness  unfair labor practices Strategic advantage through effective HRM  The bottom line is improved by maximizing the potential of your people  HR creates value by engaging in activities that produce the employee behaviors the company needs to achieve its strategic goals. Equity  Employment Equity : Fair, impartial access to employment  14 protected grounds under the charter of human rights psych roots of human prejudice Intergroup bias  Stereotypes - beliefs about attributes that are thought to be characteristic of members of particular groups  Prejudice - a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and its individual members  Discrimination - unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their membership in that group. Sources of prejudice, Social Sources  Unequal Status  Social Identity Cognitive Sources  Stereotypes  Perceived Similarities and Differences  Illusory Correlation Unequal Status  Realistic conflict theory – direct competition between groups over valued resources (jobs, schools)  Robber’s Cave Experiment  Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Social Identity  Social categorization- divide world into in-group (“us”) and out-group (“them”)  in-group bias- view own group more favorably Prejudice is by-product of our thinking processes  Stereotypes- sweeping generalizations of social groups  influence social thought by: process information consistent with stereotype quicker  focus on information consistent with stereotype  use tacit inferences to make inconsistent information appear consistent  out-group homogeneity  out-group members seen as more alike  in-group differentiation  in-group members seen as more diverse (heterogeneous)  illusory correlations  overestimating rates of negative behavior in minority groups Discrimination- negative behaviors directed toward members of some social group subtle forms  Tokenism- perform trivial actions for minorities  reverse discrimination- leaning over backwards to treat targets of prejudice favorably Modern Racism and Sexism Modern racism - prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside a rejection of explicitly racist beliefs Benevolent Racism and Sexism Measures to Assess True Attitudes  Implicit Association Test (IAT): technique for revealing unconscious Prejudices toward particular groups  Priming and Implicit Prejudice o Priming - procedure used to increase the accessibility of a concept or schema (for example, a stereotype)  Are automatically activated evaluations outside of a person’s awareness (unconscious)  Formed slowly through experience  Very resistant to extinction  Changing implicit attitudes  Can be changed without subject’s conscious awareness  Prime subjects with counter stereotypes Being a member of a stigmatized group 1. Attribution Ambiguity 2. Stereotype Threat - fear that one will confirm the stereotypes that others have regarding some salient group of which one is a member reducing prejudice  Social Learning  teach parents to socialize children to be tolerant  Increase intergroup contact o contact must involve cooperation and interdependence o norms favoring group equality must exist o focus on individual-based (vs. category) processing  Extended Contact Hypothesis : knowing that members of in-group have formed friendships with out- group members may reduce prejudice  Have groups work on superordinate goals  Focus on similarities between in-group and nonthreatening outgroup  Recategorization  reset boundaries between “us” and “them”, so former outgroup is now included in in-group  Focus on others’ specific traits and outcomes (attribute-driven processing) rather than on group stereotypes (category-driven processing) Job analysis Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. The Job, not the person Purpose of Job Analysis: To establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. Methods of Job An
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