RSM260H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Hawthorne Effect

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Rotman Commerce
Course
RSM260H1
Professor
Organizations social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort.
Social inventions → presence of people. Group effort → practice effective teamwork
OB understanding ppl & managing them to work effectively; how orgs can survive (by
being motivated to join/remain in org, work reliably productive, quality, service, willing to
learn, upgrade, be flexible & innovative) & adapt to change; attitudes & behaviours of
individual & groups in orgs. Goals of OB: predict, explain, manage OB
Management getting things accomplished in the org through others manage behaviour
Classical view high specializatn of labour, intensive coordination, centralized decision
makin. To maintain ctrl: few workers, except for lower level jobs close supervision >
machine pacing
Taylor’s(specialization of labour, rule of thumb) Scientific management (job design)
determine optimum degree of specialization & standardization. Devlop instructions define
work proced., standardize worker mov’t & breaks for max efficiency. Bureacracy (weber)-
strict command chain, detailed rules, high specializn, centralized power, selctn&promtn
based on techn competc
Hawthorne studies in hawthorne plant, concerned with impact of fatigue, rest pauses,
lighting on productivity they added breaks, lighting and saw productivity increase (
research by Mayo n Roethlizberg) Hawthorne effect - changes in participants' behavior
during the course of a study may be "related only to the special social situation and social
treatment they received
Human relations mvmnt critique of classical mgt&bureacy tht advocated mgt style tht
were more participative& employee need oriented. Probs:1. strict specialization >
incompatible with human needs for growth&achievement, lead employee alienation 2.
Centralization>fail to take adv of lower lvl creative ideas&knowledge, org fail to learn from
mistakes 3. Strict rules>employees adopt min acceptable lvl of performance 4. Strong
specialization>employees lose sight of overall goals of org, divorced from true needs of
customers red tape mentality
Contingency approach appropriate mgt style depends on demands of situation
Job satisfaction-collection of attitudes that workers hav abt their jobs. Facet
satisfaction:more/less satisfied with facets of job, overall satisfaction:summary indicator of
attitude toward job
Predictors and causes of job satisfaction:1) discrepancy-job sat. stems from discrepancy
between job outcomes wanted and outcomes perceived to be obtained/ 2)fairness-
distributive fairness (receive what I think I deserve), equity theory(job sat. stems from
comparing one’s input+output with another’s), procedural fairness(process used to
determine work outcome is reasonable), interactional fairness (ppl feel they hv received
respectful & informative communication abt outcome)/ 3)disposition(personality contributes
to job sat)/ 4) Mood(longerlived less intense)&emotion(shortlived intense feeling by event)
Attitude-stable evaluative tendancy to respond consistently to some specific object
situation,person, category of people. Attitude=belief+value(tendancy to prefer certain state
of affairs over others)
Outcomes of job satisfaction: less absenteeism, less turnover, higher performance (Js >
motiv > perfm),
Organizational citizenship behavior(voluntary informal behavior contributes to orgs
effectiveness, unlikely to be rewarded, spontaneous), customer satisfaction
Organizational commitment: attitude reflecting strength of linkage between employee&org,
remain in org. 1) affective (based on person’s identification&involvment want to stay), 2)
continuance (based on costs that would be incurred in leaving org-have to stay),
3)normative(ideology,feeling-should stay)
Motivation-extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.Effort(amt of activity),
Persistance (continuity in their amt of effort), Direction(direction benefits org, quality),
goals(objective toward dirctn)
Intrinsic motivation-from direct relationship between worker&task; self applied;
achievement, challenge
Extrinsic motivation-from work environment external to ask; applied by others; pay, benefit,
supervision
MotivationPersonality, general cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional
intelligence, chancePerformance (extent employee contributes to achieving org
objectives)
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:lowest unsatisfied need has greatest motivating potential.
Physiological (to survive, food, shelter) Safety (security, stability, freedom, safe working
conditions, job security) Belongingness (social interaction, love, friendly&supportive
supervision, teamwork) Esteem (adequacy, competence, independence, recognition,
status) Self-actualizatio (develop true potential as individual, skill, talent personally fulfilling,
growth, never ending)
Alderfer’s ERG theory- Existence needs: physiological & safety, Relatedness:
Belonging&Esteem, Growth: fulfilled by strong personal involvement in work setting, utilize
skills&abilities –lower level mustn’t be satisfied before moving on, higher level not satisfied,
satisfaction sought from lower lvl
McClelland’s Theory of Needs-outlines conditions under which certain needs result in
particular patterns of motivation, find job that match needs. Need for achievement: desire to
perform challenging tasks well (personal responsibility taken for outcomes, set moderately
difficult goals providing risk, desire performance feedback)/ Need for affiliation: desire to
establish & maintain friendly, compatible relationships (like others, want others to like them,
social networking, communicate a lot, avoid conflicts & competition- ex: social worker)/
Need for power: desire to influence others, make big impact, impressn (seek social setting
to be influential, act in high profile attention getting manner, strong concern for personal
prestige, power used to serve power seeker, others, or org ex: journalist, manager)
Need theories managerial implications: appreciate diversity(evaluate individuals), & intrinsic
motivation
Expectancy theory: motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur
as a result of their actions on the job. Outcomes:1st lvl(interest of org), 2nd lvl(interest of
worker-pay)/Instrumentality: prob 1st lvl outcome will b followed by 2nd lvl outcome/
Valence:expected value of work outcome (attractive/unattractive)/ Expectancy:prob worker
can do 1st lvl outcome/ Force: effort directed to 1st lvl outcome. ||ppl motivated work
activities they find attractive & feel can accomplish, attractiveness depends on extent which
they lead to good personal consequences (pay, benefit) Managerial implications for
expectancy theory: boost expectancies, clarify reward, and appreciate diverse needs
Goal setting theory: goals are motivational when they’re specific (specify to exact level of
achievement to accomplish in time frame), challenging (personal matter-depends on
experience&basic skills), & when workers r committed (goals effect strongest when
committed), & feedback abt progress is provided (feedback must be accurate, specific,
credible, timely). Enhance goal commitment: participation(group), rewards, supportiveness
(boss encourage). Goal orientation: learning goal, performance prove/avoid, distal,
proximal
Job scope: breadth, depth of job
Job Characteristics Model: Core Job Characteristics: Autonomy(flexibility in scheduling
one’s own work activities and deciding work proced), Skill variety(variety of job using
various skills/talent), Task significance (impact/ importance of the job to others), Task
identity(extent of doing a complete piece of work from beginning to end),
Feedback(feedback on performance effectiveness)./ Psych States: experienced
meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of work, knowledge of
results of work activities/Outcomes: high internal motivation. Growth sat., job sat., work
effectiveness
Job design/enrichment: design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation (quality of working life,
job involvement-importance of work to one’s self image)/ done by: combining tasks,
establish external &internal client relationships, reduce supervision/reliance on others (ex:
worker checks own work), form teams, make direct feedback. Probs: poor diagnosis, lack
of desire/skill, demand for rewards, union resistance, supervisory resistance
Personality stable set of psychological characteristics that influence interaction, feeling,
thinking, behaviour (developed from genetics & long term learning history, can change with
experience)
Interactionist org is a function of both disposition &situation.. Person-situation debate.
Situational approach work environment predicts/explains behavior, charac. Of org
(rewards, punish) influcne feeling, attitude, behaviour
Big Five extraversion(job satsf): extent outgoing vs. shy. High: sociable,energetic,joyful, job
with interpersonal interaction. Neuroticism (motivation)-degree appropriate emotional
control. Low: self confident, esteem. High: depression, selfdoubt, stress/Agreeableness-
extent frndly&approachable. High: warm, considerate, cooperative, helpful, job for
interaction, helping. Low: cold, intolerant,uncaring/. Conscientious(motiv, job satisf):degree
responsible&achievement oriented. High: orderly, disciplined, hrd working. Low:
irresponsible, lazy, implusive /Openess to experience extent flexibly&receptive to new
ideas; high:creativity,innovation, intellectual, curious, imaginative. Low:favor status quo,
dull.
Self-monitoring: extent which ppl observe & regulate how they appear & behave in social
settings. High: job requiring role play, self presentation, communicative skills, flexibility
Locus of control: set of beliefs abt whether behavior is controlled by internal/external forces.
External: fate, luck, powerful people. Internal: self initiative, personal actions,
effort=achievement, control what happens, career plan)
Self esteem: degree person has positive self evaluation. High: favourable self image, job
satisfy, perform, resilient to strains. Low: uncertain abt opinion, impact by events, dnt react
to stres. Behavioural plasticity theory: low self esteem are more susceptible to
externl&social influences. To boost: give autonomy, decision making, interesting work.
Positive affectivity experience + emotions&moods&view world in + light, including self and
others(cheerful, sociable
Negative affectivity-exp emotions…etc. distressed, experience more stress at work n
strain, counterproductive
Proactive personality- trait of individual’s belief in his ability to perform successfully in
challenging situations, it’s motivational not affective trait bec it reflects belief he can
succeed in tasks rather how he feels abt himself, developed in lifetime with experience in
success/failure in tasks. High: adapt to uncertain, adverse situations, high job satsif,
performance
Core self evaluations: broad personality concept consisting of ore specific traits that refect
evaluations people hold abt themselves and their selfworth, competence, capability. Four
traits: self esteem, self efficacy, locus of control, neurotcism dispositional traits predict job
satisf , performance. (+ve)-percieve jobs interesting, autonomous
Social Cognitive Theory-human behavior explained through system of reciprocal causation,
which personal factors and env’t work together n influce behavior. Three components: 1.
Observational learing (imitate) 2. Self efficacy 3. Self- regulation (use learing principals to
regulate own behavior). Discrepancy reduction: modify behavior in pursuit of goal
attainment. Discrepancy production: attain goals then set even higher more challenging
goals
Perception-process interpreting msgs of senses to provide order & meaning of env, sort,
organize input. Components of perception-1. perceiver(experience, needs, emotions affect
his perception of target. Needs unconsciously influence our perception by causing us to
perceive what we wish to perceive) /2. Target- perception involves interpreting and addition
of meaning to target, solve ambiguous target/3. situation perception occurs in situational
context affecting perception, it adds info to target
Social identity theory-people form perceptions of themselves based on their
characteristics&membership in social categories, social identity based on perception we
belong to social groups (race) prototype
Perceptual defence-perceputal system defend perceiver against unpleasant emotions (see
wat we want)
Selective perception-perceivers don’t use all cues &give special emphasis to those they do
(efficient)
Primacy effect-perciever rely on early cues or first impressions, lasting impact-constancy,
selective
Recency effect-perceiver rely on recent cues/last impressions - doctors
Central traits-personal characteristics of target that r of particular intest of perceiver, which
perceiver organizes perceptions around(good looking > good person, tall> leader)
Implicit personality theories-theory abt which personality charcts s go together, basis for
misunderstndin
Projection-perceivers attribute their own thoughts&feelings to others
Stereotyping-generalize abt ppl in certain social category &ignore variations amg them
Attribution-process we assign causes or motives to explain ppl’s behaviours
Dispositional attributions-explanation for behavior based on personality/intellect
Situational attributions-explanation for behavior based on situation/environment
Self-serving bias-take credit for successful outcomes, deny blame for failure (excuse making,
self promo)
Fundamental attribution error-overemphasize dispositional explanatns for behavior at
expense of situati
Actor-observer effct-actor n observer view causes of actor differently. Observer FAE, actor-
sitation
Halo effect-rating of an individual on 1 trait colours ratings on other traits
In-group/out-group bias-favoring members of one’s ingroup over outgroup, ingroup belonging
Workplace diversity-differences among recruits&employees in characteristics (gender, race,
age)-value diversity not just tolerate or try to blend everyone into mainstream, stereotype
threat
Contrast effect-previously interviewed ppl affect interviewer’s perception of current applicant,
leading to exaggeration of differences between applicants
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Document Summary

Organizations social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Management getting things accomplished in the org through others manage behaviour. Classical view high specializatn of labour, intensive coordination, centralized decision makin. To maintain ctrl: few workers, except for lower level jobs close supervision > machine pacing. Taylor"s(specialization of labour, rule of thumb) scientific management (job design) determine optimum degree of specialization & standardization. Devlop instructions define work proced. , standardize worker mov"t & breaks for max efficiency. Bureacracy (weber)- strict command chain, detailed rules, high specializn, centralized power, selctn&promtn based on techn competc. Human relations mvmnt critique of classical mgt&bureacy tht advocated mgt style tht were more participative& employee need oriented. Probs:1. strict specialization > incompatible with human needs for growth&achievement, lead employee alienation 2. Centralization>fail to take adv of lower lvl creative ideas&knowledge, org fail to learn from mistakes 3. Strict rules>employees adopt min acceptable lvl of performance 4.

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