cheat sheet for 260 final exam

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16 Jan 2011
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Group : Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.Formal
group: Groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of
organizational goals.Informal group : Groups that emerge naturally in response to the
common interests of organizational members.Stages of group development : Forming;
Storming (conflict, criticism, confrontation, roles, responsibility, problem); Norming
(social consensus, compromise, interdependence, norms, more cohesive); Performing
(achievement, creativity, mutual assistance); Adjourning (disperse, rites, rituals,
emotional support)Group structure: refers to the characteristics of the stable social org of a
group. Group size: satisfaction (smaller group better satisfaction, can cooperate better,
more participation); performance G roup tasks :Additive: Tasks in which group perf is
dept on the sum of the performance of individual group members. (e.g construction worker);
Disjuntive :group perf is dept on the performance of best group members. (e.g members
good knowledge of Excel) Conjunctive: is limited by the performance of the poorest group
members. (e.g assembly line operation)Diversity (creative, open) Process losses: Group
perf difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger
groups.Consequences: Communication barrier changing working culture (casual Friday)
; Process losses: Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating
and coordinating larger group.Roles : Positions in group that have a set of expected
behaviours attached to them.(conflict:incompatible role expectation)Status : The rank, social
position or prestige accorded to group members.(informal&formal)Norms : Collective
expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each others.
(dress;reward allocation;performance)Cohesiveness : The degree to which a group is esp
attractive to its members. (Threat&competition, success, member diversity, size, toughness
of initiation; more participation in group activities, more conformity, more success)Adv of
group decision making: More complete info;pSharing of expertise, experience,
diversity;Pooling of resources;Increased quality (accuracy);Increased acceptance of the
decision.Disadv:Ambiguous responsibility-bystander effect;Slow;Likelihood of intra-group
conflict;Pressure to conform to norms and leaders;Likelihood of extreme
decisions;CostlySolutions : Training discussion leaders ; Stimulatiing and managing
controversy(Devil’s advocate a person appointed to identify and challenge the weakness
of a proposed plan or strategy;Traditional and electronic brainstorming :An attempt to
increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea
generation rather than evaluation)Nominal group technique: A structured group decision
making technique in which ideas are generated without group interaction and then
systematically evaluated by the group.D elpi technique : a method of pooling a large number
of expert judgements by using a series of increasingly refined question.Groupthink : The
capacity for group pressure to damage the mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral
judgement of decision-making groups.Groupshift (risky/conservative shift): The tendency
for groups to make riskier (less risky) decisions than the average risk initially advocated by
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