Soc203-Lecture 2

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School of Environment
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Lecture 2 Inequality 1. French peasants before the Revolution 2. French lords before the Revolution 3. Inequality is a social fact 4. Some main forms of inequality 5. Some main sources of inequality 6. Inequality in pre-modern societies: * hunter-gatherer * tribal * early states 1. From peasants to proletarians: Marx on work conditions industrial Britain Point 1 & 2 * Life to be peasants. * Privilege of lords * Revolutions: French and Industrial revolution. * Marx: factory: labouring class -- manufacture. 1863: many children under 18 working in the factories, working long hours under very unhealthy and unpleasant environment and condition. ----- Bake house: extremely long working hours, many dead due to the highly stressed working condition. Unhealthy working condition such as not enough air in the working place. * Feudism to Industry, capitalism (Prostitution) * Marx 1840-60s: workers in factories: will they rise up to against? maintaining social order? conflict? rising industrialization? * Transfer the past experiences. Point 6: Early states * Gender relations -- position of women: improve a little comparing to ancient China. * Religion and military -- women own property. Property owners. Women enjoy the same rights as owner: property keeping until married to someone. Women have marriage rights. Women have legal states. * In Roma, women’s guard: transfer from father to husband. * In China, women are subordinate to men, marriages are assigned by family. * English society: variation * Social mores * Status: what does it matter? internally connect to class? Interrelationship between status and class. * Occupation prestige through 1977 to 1998. In the top, doctor: the status and class are closely related. But bankers, status and class are not closely related. * When we talk about the status and prestige: having a lot of money but not necessarily have higher prestige. * Social honor is related to religious group, social stigma in the religious group (birthplace). * Things are status or class? Luxury car, education: class advantage; military: status. Media spotlight: status? * Status and class should be separate, they are not interchangeable. Historical Context of The Communist Manifesto (1848) 1. Slow change * persistence of monarchies * persistence of old classes * rise of new classes 1. Rapid growth * urbanization * technology * productivity * commerce 1. Uncertainty over the future of: * capitalism * monarchies * nationalism * social order 4. Reading The Communist Manifesto Marx & Weber Historical Context of The Communist Manifesto (1848) 1. Slow Change * Persistence of monarchies - 1848, most Europe (Great Britain is an exception) are erode by monarchies - absolutist: mobility has been kept down do much. * Persistence of old classes - social class, wealth and honor are based on the land holding on few people’s hands. * rise of new classes - new classes emerging: new middle class emerging - characteristics: not in the highest class, but with a servant. Such as university professors - about 2% of population in Great Britain in late 1800s. Very small group. - The lower class: working class in mining, manufacturing. - The growth of working class. 1. Raid growth * urbanization - Many new big modern cities emerging * technology - Technology: gas lamp, railway system - more and more people. Machines in the manufacturing. * productivity - the amount of production increases: the productivity increase sharply. * commerce - International and national business and corporations emerging. 1. Uncertainty over the future of: (conjunction) * capitalism * monarchies - tied to French Revolution * nationalism - important in the socialism - Can be both left and right wing. i.e. Italy:
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