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University of Toronto St. George
School of Environment
Douglas Mac Donald

ENV222 FINAL EXAM BOOKLETUP UNTIL MIDTERMHumanity that which lies outside the INDIVIDUAL human being Nature rural and nonhuman world two way interaction between human and nature This has consequencesie after Industrial Revolution population INCREASES this course is all about INTERCONNECTED problems ie within the natural and human worldthere expanded from local to global therefore we need interconnected solutionsGlobal problemsproblems effecting the entire GLOBAL system ie in atmosphere or in water Cumulative problems problems that are on a local scale but added up create an equivalence to global problemsBasic Dynamic This is the relationship between human and nonhuman entitys Anthropocentrism Involves morals that human feel they should RULE over all other species Human dominance over nature Where the environmental problem located Back then it use to be that the wilderness was seen as dangerous and humans feared it therefore they stayed away from it Now the idea of wilderness is irrelevant humans have dominants plants and animals McKibben thinksno part of nature is untouched by humans ie end of NATURE Can no longer think the problem is in the city and the solution is found in the wilderness PROBLEM IS EVERYWHERE LETS GO BACKAgricultural Revolution Happened 10000 years ago era of HUMAN control over HUMANS Plough introduced Went from hunter gather societies to fixed dwellings Labor specialization Class structure Increase of humanity over nature mentalityIndustrial Revolution Happened 250 years ago introduction of factory system Market exchange over distances Use of fossil fuels Production changed from decentralization to centralization Threshold Nonlinear transition in function of humanenvironmental systems from desired to undesired stateBoundary safe distance from threshold Determining a boundary is a NORMATIVE judgment RISK It is normative because risk is our OWN willingness to expose ourselves to potential harm State provides wealth necessary to product commodities Market distributes commoditiesCivil Society individuals and organizations in a society which are independent of the governmentWhere have we CROSSED our BOUNDARIES Climate change biodiversity loss and nitrogen cycleWhere are we CLOSE to crossing our boundaries Freshwater and ocean acidification
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