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SMC203 1/2 of the final exam terms

St. Michael's College Courses
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Jessy P.
Study Guide

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1) John Calvin- 1509-1564, originally Catholic but converted to Protestantism in his 20’s. Christian
theologian that writes about various doctrinal issues within Christianity. Most well-known for his
doctrine of Pre-destination. This is the belief that everything is pre-determined. Humans have
fallen from God’s grace and they are sinful. Salvation is pre-determined. Cannot be saved unless
you live a virtuous and holy life. This is the doctrine of Pre-destination. Calvinism is significant
because it resulted in the spread of Protestantism in Geneva (1536). However, he also created a
lot of conflict within the Christian community for being a tyrant and he was expelled after two
years. He later came back and won the right to excommunicate people and to also weed out
Roman Catholic practices. This movement is also significant because it shows the differing
degrees of Protestantism based on how strict it can be. Calvinism is one of the most disciplined
sects. Good works and moral behavior is the center of religious life. If you are not living holy,
then that is a sign that you are one of the dammed.
2) Council of Trent- called in 16th century in response to the Protestant doctrine “Priesthood of all
believers.” Also known as the counter-reformation to the Protestant Reformation. This council
had several major outcomes: banned the sale of indulgences, more emphasis on clergy training
and education, Jesus more important than the veneration of saints, reaffirms the 7 sacraments,
authority of scripture is dependent on the Catholic Church. This council is significant to the
history of Christianity because it forever changed Roman Catholic practice (no indulgences). It
also shows how once branch of Christianity has influence on another as this council was called in
response to Protestantism. Changes the nature of the clergy today as they must be much more
educated than they were in the past. Promotes greater cohesion within the Catholic Church as
certain issues were resolved. Resulted in formation of new religious orders (the Jesuits).
3) Jesuits in Huronia- (Jesuits in general) Founded by Ignatius of Loyola 15th century. Emphasis:
Known for their emphasis on education and discipline. Believe it was their mission to spread the
good news to whoever wherever, as demonstrated by their vast missionary enterprises. They
grow quickly because of the work they provide (example: education system), they are also very
committed to social justice. Significant because help Catholicism spread. Able to spread
Christianity while preserving the Native culture. Conflict between the Jesuits and Catholic
Church, criticized for watering down faith because didn’t change culture. Late 18th century,
disbanded by the Catholic Church. How they execute their goals: French group founded a
book, missionary work called the “Relations” consists of how the Jesuits should be missionizing.
Gives people advice, helps endure people to their cause, allows them to get support and raise
funds. Huronia- easier to missionize in Huron because the Hurons were not nomadic,
missionaries arrive in 1634. Jesuits wanted to spread the Gospel because they wanted to save
souls, believed the Natives had souls, and they believed that doing this was for their best
benefit. 1639 had 300 conversions but only 10 in good health. How they execute their goals:
would be very flexible and accommodating to Native practices, they learned Native languages,
would ensure that they could get a hearing audience, do this by finding points of contact and
make the faith appealing. Their missionary work had a variety of range of Native responses 1)
Catholics and Jesuits evil, kill them 2) Hostile rejection, not aggressive, 3) Disinterest 4) Assertion

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dichomious universe 5) Just go through the motions (external assent to new religion) 6)
religious dimorphism (2 religious systems at once) 7) syncretism (converts blend native
spirituality and new found Christian faith 8) rarest (full conversion) 9) radical imperialism,
indigenized Christianity.
4) Jesuits in Asia- Missionary component of the Catholic Church, travel all around the work in an
attempt to save souls by bringing people to Christ. Significant- Most successful Jesuit enterprise
was in the Philippines. One reason is people get tax breaks once they convert, this makes
Christianity economically appealing. In Asia, the movement extremely stresses accommodation.
Example is Matteo Ricco who spends time studying Confucian religion, finds a way to make
Christianity accommodating to Confucianism, does this by presenting Christianity as a way to
perfect Confucianism, supplement. People who found Christianity appealing had issue with
social order in China. Appeal to Tunglin movement because they want power, find Christianity
appealing and Christianity not the religion of their enemies. Possible issue: Christianity and
idolatry. Christianity was appealing in India because it attracted people in lower castes,
appealing that God loves everybody
5) Galileo- Scientist in the 16/17th century who studies science about how the world functions. He
studies to disprove the Ptolemaic world view which states that the world is the center of the
universe and nothing changes beyond the moon. He tries to relate scientific findings to the
bible. Example, God is the author of revelation and natural world. In 1616, Copernicusism was
denounced by the church as heretical. In 1632, Pope Urban 8 allows Galileo to continue to study
Copernicusism. He writes dialogue for Heliocentrism and is put on trial by the church. The
church sides against Galileo and he is forced to denounce his views. Significant because it shows
the conflict between religion and science. Can see changing attitudes and relationship between
church and science. People no longer put on trial, religion is somewhat more accommodating to
science. However there is still tension and this is because of correct orthodoxy (can one still
believe in science and be Christian?)
6) Puritans- Began as a Christian separatist movement, known as the “pure church.” Came out of
the Elizabethan era. Had a few elements of Catholicism. Ask for 3 things: pure preaching of the
word. Sincere administration of the sacrament, and severe enforcement of discipline (punish
people who do not follow). Show varying church/state relations. Church is not co-relative with
the State; church is made up of the willing. Christianity ultimately a choice cannot impose it
from above.
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