•SOC 202 TEST 1

CHAPTER ONE

Stats is about obtaining an accurate sense of proportion in regard to reality

Statistical imagination : an appreciation of how usual or unusual an event , circumstance, or

behaviour is in relation to a larger set of familiar events, and an appreciation of an event’s

cause and consequences

Sociological imagination : an awareness of the relationship of the individual to the wider

society and history

Any statistic is culturally bound or normative (its interpretation depends on the place time

and culture in which it is observed)statistical norms are measurement of social norms/

statistical ideals often reflect social values (it is a socially desired rate of occurrence of a

phenomenon)

The statistical imagination, with its awareness of the linkages between statistical

measurement and social facts, requires a degree of scepticism.

Purpose of statistical analysis Descriptive statistics: used to tell us how many observation

were recorded and how frequently each score or category occurred/ inferential statistics: used

to show cause and effect relationship and to test hypotheses and theories

A good scientific theory accomplishes two thing it provides a sense of understanding

about a phenomenon/ it allows us to make empirical predictions to answer the question of

under what condition and to what degree a phenomenon will occur

Science has limitation, restricted to examining empirical phenomena/ many sound factually

based scientific arguments lack political or taxpayer support/ ethical dilemmas often arise

creating resistance to its application

Variable: measurable phenomena that vary or change over time, or that differ form place or

from individual to individual (features of the object or subject under study) variation: refers

to how much the measurement of a variable differ among study subjects. Constant:

characteristics of study subjects that don't vary.

The research process: involves organizing ideas into a theory, making empirical predictions

that support the theory, and then gathering data to test these predictions/ this is a cumulative

process (a continual process of accumulation of knowledge)

oSpecify the research question ( raise a question/identify the dependent variable)

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oReview the scientific literature (not waste time and money collecting data that already

exist)

oPropose a theory and state hypotheses (organizing ideas that can explain variation of

the dependant variable/ identify independent variable and state hypothesis)

oSelect a research design ( how data is to be measured, sampled and gathered)

oCollect the data (going into the field, and getting the information)

oAnalyze the data and draw conclusions (involves statistical analysis/ hypothesis is

tested)

oDisseminate the results (share the findings with the public and the scientific

community)

Proportional thinking: placing an observation into a larger context/ weighing the part against

the whole and calculating the like hood of the phenomenon to occur over the long run.

A rate: is the frequency of occurrence of a phenomenon per a specified, useful “base”

number of subjects in a population

CHAPTER TWO

Statistical errors are imprecision in the procedures used to gather and process information.

Two main source of statistical error: 1)sampling error- we do not observe every subject in the

population/ 2)measurement error- imprecise measures, difficulties in classification of

observations and the need to round numbers

A Population : A large group of people of particular interest that we desire to study and

understand. Sample: a small subgroup of the population/ it’s used to draw conclusion about

the population/ with samples we compute statistic rather than parameters

Statistic: a summary calculation of measurement made on a sample to estimate a parameter of

the population

A Parameter: A summary calculation of measurements made on all subjects in a population

(usually not calculated and, therefore, unknown)

1) Sampling error comes from sample size (the number of cases or observation in a

sample/ the larger the sample the smaller the range of error/ probability theory allows us to

say exactly how often a sample statistic will correctly predict a parameter) and

representativeness of the sample (the extent to which all segments of a population actually

land in a sample

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Simple random sample: one in which every person has the same chance of being selected for

the sample

2)measurement errors inaccuracy in research that derives from imprecise measurement

instrument, difficulties in the classification of observations and the need to round numbers.

To limit the measurement error we use operational definitions. We use levels of

measurement for a variable (this identifies its measurement properties, which determine the

kind of mathematical operations that can be appropriately used with it and the statistical

formulas that can be used with it in testing theoretical hypotheses)

Four level of measurements:

oNominal : indicate a difference in category, class, quality or kind/ name categories/ do

not allow for numerical scores/ there is no sense of degree/ many have two categories-

called dichotomous variable

oOrdinal : name categories but have the additional categories to be ranked from highest

to lowest, best or worst, or first to last

oInterval: have the characteristic of nominal and ordinal variable plus a defined

numerical unit or interval of measure/ identify differences in amount, quantity, degree

or distance/ we think in terms of distance between scores on a straight line/ the

interval or distance between scores are the same between any two points on the

measurement scale

oRatio: have the characteristics of interval variable plus a true zero point, where a score

of zero means none/ we can compute ratio- the amount of one observation in relation

to another

level of measurement applies to the entire variable and provides information on the strengths

and weaknesses of a variables measurement/ the unit of measurement is a term used only

with interval/ratio variables- it fixes the set interval for the numerical values used as scores

for an interval/ratio variable

increasing the level of measurements indexing: researcher soften create an index or a

survey scale to transform nominal/ordinal data into an interval/ratio variable

coding: a concise description of the symbols that signify each score of each variable/ basic

principles of coding Inclusiveness: states that for a given variable there must be a score or

code for every observation made (include a response category for every possible answer).

Exclusiveness: every observation can be assigned one and only one score for a given variable.

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## Document Summary

Stats is about obtaining an accurate sense of proportion in regard to reality. : an appreciation of how usual or unusual an event , circumstance, or behaviour is in relation to a larger set of familiar events, and an appreciation of an event"s cause and consequences. : an awareness of the relationship of the individual to the wider society and history. the statistical imagination, with its awareness of the linkages between statistical measurement and social facts, requires a degree of scepticism. Descriptive statistics: used to tell us how many observation were recorded and how frequently each score or category occurred/ inferential statistics: used to show cause and effect relationship and to test hypotheses and theories. Science has limitation, restricted to examining empirical phenomena/ many sound factually based scientific arguments lack political or taxpayer support/ ethical dilemmas often arise creating resistance to its application. Constant: characteristics of study subjects that don"t vary.