SOC363H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mood Disorder, The Chronic, System On A Chip

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Published on 20 Dec 2016
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1. From Lecture and Reading by Mirowsky and Ross, “Well-Being Across the Life Course” (4 marks)
Well Being across the Life Course Mirowsky and Ross
Adulthood begins with high levels of stress and anxiety…like this course is giving me
Decrease rapidly with time
Trials and efforts improve well-being
Late middle age is when everything comes together
o Things change again as people become seniors
o Depending on their health and status
o Emotional well being is built through adult and shapes a seniors life
Introduction:
Middle age is the best time of life (40s and 50s have it best)
Anxiety and depression peak in young adulthood and decline as middle age is reached
Adulthood Trajectories of Emotions:
Depression is least prevalent during middle age
Youngest and oldest respondents have the highest forms of depression
o Over the years depression goes down for young adults and up for old adults
Depression follows a U shape pattern
Levels of depression change as a person goes through adulthood
Lower age specific levels of depression in young adulthood, and the reserve with aging
Anxiety and Anger show a different trajectory
Emotional agitation decline through adulthood decline at a steady rate with no signs of pattern in birth cohorts
Anger declines fasted between 40 and 60 trend toward lower anger in early adulthood
Anger and Anxiety are much more prevalent below 36 than depression (2-3 times as frequent)
All three decline greatly into middle age but depression goes up in old age
Positive emotions shift from positive to passive across adulthood positive emotions become more common with age
Five Views of Age:
1. Maturity
2. Decline
a. Things change over time and it isn’t until everything is compounded that it has a negative effect
b. As you age disease and physical aliments increase at a faster rate
3. Life-cycle stage
a. Progression into old age increases at around 60
4. Generation
5. Survival
a. Depression increases with the aging process and those who are severely depressed die more quickly
b. Life expectancy at birth is 4.4 years lower for minorities
c. Poverty, low education, unemployment all increase age-specific mortality…as well as being divorced, separated
or widowed
d. Most traits that increase depression usually effect mortality, but that is not the case for women…who suffer
more from depression but live longer
Concentric Spheres of Experience
Conditions make up the most external sphere
Example: Poverty is a condition, hopelessness is a belief, and despair and emotion
Economic Prosperity:
Money does help decrease the intensity, frequency, and duration of misery
You have to earn money and that takes time usually have less in young adulthood
Depression and anxiety are reduced with more income
o It makes someone ‘worth’ something
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o Higher earning reduce anxiety and agitation because the worry less about money
o Economic hardship is most common in early age when people are raising children
o Those in old age have the least hardship…even with a lower income
Employment:
Improves emotional well being
Full time employment improves mental and physical health
Adults who are unemployed (unless students) suffer more from their mental health than those the are employed full time
Retirees and part time workers have slightly more depression but not a lot more
Women who work at home feel depressed 37% more than women outside the home and 75% more than men
The job also affects levels of mental illness
Marriage:
Married people feel depressed 1/3 less often
Recently separated or widowed feel depressed most often
Level of depression drops as time moves on for those widowed or divorced, but is still higher than those who are married
Social support and household income are the two main reasons marriage reduces depression
Quality of marriage also has effects…a bad marriage is worse than no marriage
Quality of marriage improves with age
Children:
Strain a marriage
Child care, support, income all affect marriage and depression
Education:
Distress drops with more education
Parents education effects children
Childhood Family:
33% of adults in the 20s experienced a childhood family breakup
Death of a parent less common, divorce VERY common
Breakup of parents has a lifelong effect
o it reduces educational attainment
o Reduces stability of ones own marriage
Health and Physical Function:
Impairments and chronic illnesses increase after age 60 which greatly affects mental health
Not being able to complete basic tasks has large impacts
Serious impairment can double or triple depression
Physical disability causes depression to go up
Sense of Control:
Some believe good things happen by luck
Others believe that they can control things
Sense of control reduces depression
Sense of control rises in early adulthood and declines in old age
o Those with higher education go up more quickly
o Physical decline and lack of employment bring sense of control down
Well Being across A Life Course
Many young adults feel in control of their lives and outcomes
Physical impairment can impose demoralizing limitations
2. From Lecture on Age and the Life Course (2 marks)
Key marker of placement in life events
Life course: Unique and structured pathways through life
o Time and timing
o “long view of lives”
o the ripple effect (right time, right place)
o timing duration and sequence
Anger over the life course
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o Women more angry in mid-life
o Women’s anger is changing
Depression decline until midlife, and increases in later life
Anxiety and anger continually decline
What explains the age pattern of depression?
Life Stage:
o Economic, employment, marriage
Cohort:
o Low education among old
o Increased single parent and divorced-parent background among young
Decline:
o Illness, impairments, loss of sense of control
Trends Over the Life Course Marriage
Largest % married in midlife
Early adulthood never married, dominates
Later adulthood widowhood dominates
What about Anxiety and Anger?
Decline in old age do to financial security, maturity effect, resolution of sources of anger and anxiety, lower day to day stress, less
social comparison
The Importance of Remote Causation. How does it work?
Reactivation of basic issues throughout life
Stability of social conditions
Choice is consistent
Spread of small changes
The effect of events on chronic stressors that continue
Elder and Liker: Hard Times in Women’s Lives
Long term effect of SES resources in conjunction with economic deprivation in Depression
Economic loss was randomly distributed
The stressor (economic loss) varied by the SES
o Deprived found a job in response to economic loss more often than non-deprived
o Deprived middle class related to later widowhood, leading to greater independence earlier
Wheaton: he Changing Role of Childhood Stress over Lives
Time since experience changes meaning
Middle levels optimal for immunity to later stress
Trajectories: Stable component of a direction towards a life destination
Turning Points: a change in direction in the life course, with the consequences of altering the probability of life course destinations
Cumulative Advantages vs. Disadvantage
Small events can turn into big differences
How the current state of resources can reduce or multiply the consequences of current problems and create greater inequality in
functioning over time
Duration: length of time in a given state with change, or the total time in a given state over the life course
How the total amount of something adds up to create a lasting affect
Timing: The impact of the specific social circumstances that apply at the time of the life transition, event, or change
Life transitions often accompanied by uncertainty, shifts in identity, and thus greater importance of social conditions and
circumstances
Sequence: The impact of the order of events or roles, regardless of timing or time between the occurrences of events
Hogan: Sequence of roles has impact on maximum achievement more than times. E.g “worker, spouse, parent is standard but
parent, worker, spouse is not
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Document Summary

From lecture and reading by mirowsky and ross, well-being across the life course (4 marks) Well being across the life course mirowsky and ross. Adulthood begins with high levels of stress and anxiety like this course is giving me. Late middle age is when everything comes together: things change again as people become seniors, depending on their health and status, emotional well being is built through adult and shapes a seniors life. Middle age is the best time of life (40s and 50s have it best) Anxiety and depression peak in young adulthood and decline as middle age is reached. Depression is least prevalent during middle age. Youngest and oldest respondents have the highest forms of depression: over the years depression goes down for young adults and up for old adults. Levels of depression change as a person goes through adulthood. Lower age specific levels of depression in young adulthood, and the reserve with aging.

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