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STUDY PACKAGE.docx- complete study package

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STUDYPACKAGELECTURE1Final examexplain difference between mental health as independent and dependent variable TestGraphs and diagrams on testknow how to reproduce them Applications to real life examples that we dont talk about in class Questions of the Day1 Draw and describe the key elements of the stress process model2 What role do social statuses play in the production of stress3 How do moderating resources help reduce the impact of stressorsStress and Mental HealthStress and its consequences are not merely discrete happenings involving a stimulus immediately followed by a response oInstead they may entail the many factors that over time can connect the inner lives of individuals to the larger social systems of which they are a part oEg parental divorce can lead to higher anxiety and stress later on in lifeoThere is no one cause and one effecteg depression sociologists are more interested not in what gene causes depression but why some experience higher levels of depression than othersThe Stress Process ModelMost empirically proven model in sociology of mental health SESneighbourhood effects SESneighbourhood effectsprimary stressorsSES neighbourhood effectssecondary stressorsAll lead to coping mechanismssocial support mastery sense of control Important for understanding how things are interconnected and why people experience different levels of stress Conceptual frameworksmodelsWhy do social scientists use conceptual models or frameworksoOrganizes conceptstheir interrelationshipsoProvides a visual image of testable claimstestable means verified or rejected with empirical evidencehypotheses and causal orderingCO what is chain of events that causes health outcomeoAllows for replication extension and revisionConceptualizationOutcomes of social status primary and secondary stressors etccombination of multiple factorsNot just one outcomePsychologists look at mental health as outcome of individual pathologysomething wrong chemically in brain or with biology oTend to focus on one outcomeeg what is cause of bipolarSociologynot about individuals per se but about social structure and experiences oConsider possibility that there can be multiple outcomes based on conditions in ones life oFocus on why outcomes are unevenly distributed Eg single mom who has depression vs one who doesnt One who doesnt might have better coping mechanisms Hypotheses InterrelationshipsSES is fundamental aspect of where we are placed in social status and how that impacts our helpInequalities in social structure are fundamental cause of inequalities of mental healthoAccess to health care money etcoDifferences in power can place some in better positions than others oEg if you are a woman in a job that only hires men gender becomes daily part of negotiation in your job See how status impacts things here Social status can affect copingif you dont have money cant get education cant develop mastery which has been shown to reduce depression and anxietySES impacts conditions you live inoPeople with low SES often live in disorganized highly crime ridden unsafe conditionsoPeople who have similar SES often live in same areaReason why certain people congregate in certain areasoNeighbourhoods you live in tend to be comprised of people who are similar to youhomophily oAmbient stressorseg uncertainty can increase anxiety when on subway Stressors come in two main formsoLife eventseg death of spouseoChronic strainseg unemploymentAlso noneventsthings that dont happen when you expect them to happen Multiple rolesoStudent caregiver employeehard to manage oRoles that you have can intermix with social roles and can increase stress and strainlevel of stress can then compound over timeSES important because it impacts not only primary stressors but secondary stressors and these secondary stressors can create chronic stress over time long term effects over long periods of time Impact of SES on mental health outcomes which impact mediating and moderating resourcesoThe more of these resources you have the less likely it is that stressors will negatively affect youoEg greater social support and sense of mastery will have less chronic stress over timeoCan have indirect impact on stress oCoping resourceswhat you do to prevent social stressTry to change situation where stress occurs either by changing environment or removing themselves from environmentoSocial supportskills part and emotions part Friends familyMattering becomes importantwhen you feel like you matter to others or they matter to you you are more likely to talk to them and seek helpFormal instrumental supportSpecifically trained in helping reduce stressDoctors therapists psychiatristsInformal instrumental social supportStuff you get from family and friendstalk go to dinner go to movie Perceived socialemotional supportAbility to buffer effects of stressors oMasteryFeel like you have control over life The stress process model should be regarded as a general orientating framework that canguide the thinking of researchers about potentially stressful circumstancessensitize them to the kinds of data that are needed to study these circumstancesand suggest to them fruitful lines of analyses and interpretation of their effectsEg need framework to understand where mastery fits Stress Process Model Central issuesMultiple stressors can be influential for outcomes of the stress processThe relationship between stressors and distress is probabilisticoPeople who belong to group X are more likely to experience YoBeing X tends to increase the risk of YoOn average X is associated with higher levels of YExposure elevates risk of mental health problems even though the risk tends to be low overallSocial stress acts as a nonspecific risk factor for mental healthillness oThat is it isnt limited to a single disorder
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