•Biological stress model. First model. Bystress amdstressors he meant the same
thing.sth that cud put wear and tear on the body. Extreme heat or extremem cold
etc. a lot of stress show that the long repeatedexposure to noxious stressors lead to
•4 stages of his model. Stressors.
-factors that alter the impact: conditioning factors. Coping resources. Etc.
-GAS= intervening state of stress.
-behavioural response. Produce heat, gotten sick or died animals. Distress in
-GAS= sth measured in an organism eg increase in bp.
- his model was very imp. A lot of research in psy, soc mental health. Stressor=gives
rise to stress. A stressor had to have some sorta impact on internal fcning of the
organism. Had to b biological stress response. Eg. Flight or fight response.
•Contextual circumstances. Eg. Pple who lose their job develop stress. Was their job
or skill rare so lost their job. So not in every case stressoralcoholism etc.
he didn’t take that into account.
-widout the occurance of biological stress. The person cud still develop mental health
problem. Exclude such stressors. Rats in extreme cold u measure bp. Bp not went up
and the mouse died, they didn’t take this into consideration.
-stressors may have other consequences other than health outcomes. Pplw cud suffer
life events= major changes= extensive behavioural readjustments.
-all events are stressful=they said that. U can’t compare compare 2 diff life events as
stressors (marriage vs divorce)
- evolution of research. Not common sense to put all life events together.
- theymeasured life events by coming up soc readjustment racing scale.
•Navy men who’ve gone to see the doc . sth stressful .
-from 1-100 wat’d u give to each of these events.
-those are the events and life changing events that they come up wid people like
urself to come up wid. Death of a spouse is one of the events. #s
-it takes out the contexts. U’re looking at stressors at one grp’s events. Navy men.
-all life events both positive and negative can cause mental health.
•A lot of candidates had events that were excluded from list.
-one grp of men. White men in navy. Psycho problems rather than events
-a lot of times are symptoms of psycho problems.
•Brown and harris:
-we have to look at undesirable events. More strongly associated wid psychological
problems. Acute negative events but also chronic (more persistant) strains.
-developing major depression. Usual approach was to look at life events. Good and
-u have to look at undesirable not all kind of events.
•Problem wid life events.
-a lot of times for many yrs, all operationalize (if u wana measure sth eg soc eco
status. In survey at edu level n income. Mental health researcher measure it by
looking at life events). However the negative events majority of studies v. modest
-pple who have a lot of going on in their lives’d have u’l be more likely to b developing
more mental health probs.
•The trait hypothesis:
-events vary in stressfulness. All events vary in how stressful they are. How
undesirable they are. How unpredictable and how big they are . there’re differences.
Smaller impact wid larger impact stress. U’re diluting the effects together (death vs
stress by line ups etc)
- distinguish negative from positive events.
•Differential vulnerability effect.
-not all events are going to have same impact on everybody. Social support.
•The context hypothesis:
-context in which stressors happen. Not all stressors are stressful. Divorce leads to
mental health probs, this is not the case. Divorce or death of a spouse can have
positive health effects eg. Sum1 who’se abusive. So context matters.
•Stress domain hypothesis:
- effect of events depend on history of other events.
-eg. Estimate all types of stressors in one’s life. (this hypothesis had the most
support of all)
•Engineering stress model.
-big impact on stress models developed later on.
-stress an external force acting against a resisting body.
-strain=response state of the material (strain id distress)
•Strain and stress level.
-A=initial elastic limit.
-as long as the stress point doesn’t exceed C, its not going to develop stress.
-It’ll go back and b fine.
but at some pt. individual’s ability to respond, adjust wud go to one point. There’s
going to b a point that’d push him over the edge. Called ultimate elastic limit.
-certain can only widstand so much. Others ‘ll break down.
-in engineering model , stress occurs in more than one form. Sth that’s
continuous.continually driving over the bridge.
-all the hypothesis, lead to stress process model.
•Stress is a process. Soc eco status, where u are up ther’d determine the type of
stressor u’d have. That cud lead to mental health probs. Ur coping behaviour, love of
sumtimes stressors can effect socio eco status. Ur edu level etc (not gender perhaps)
•Stressors are not guna lead to stress. Other things.
•Stressors cud b more macro (neighbourhood. High crime neighbourhood, u’re afraid
to leave house, this). Primary stressors (losing ur job) distress for some, for others
it cud have effect on others by going thru secondary stressors(wife left) mental
-it’s a mediating process. Mediating relationship.
-some stressors are less stressful than others.
-cdns of threats= they require a response.
-demands can involve overload , burden or being pushed. Restriction of choice,
opportunities , etc.
-stressor (eg. Relationship), continuous measure (distress. How much is the stress-
low to high). Linear association whereas stressors increase distress.
-all life events. A start and an end. Sum1 cud b at that stage for long time. All the
way to most chronic. Sudden traumas etc.
-which is the lease likely to cause stress (daily hassles)
Bystress amdstressors he meant the same thing. sth that cud put wear and tear on the body. Extreme heat or extremem cold etc. a lot of stress show that the long repeatedexposure to noxious stressors lead to death. Gas= sth measured in an organism eg increase in bp: seyle: A lot of research in psy, soc mental health. A stressor had to have some sorta impact on internal fcning of the organism. Was their job or skill rare so lost their job. So not in every case stressoralcoholism etc. he didn"t take that into account. The person cud still develop mental health problem. Bp not went up and the mouse died, they didn"t take this into consideration. Stressors may have other consequences other than health outcomes. edu outcome: stress models: life events= major changes= extensive behavioural readjustments. U can"t compare compare 2 diff life events as stressors (marriage vs divorce) Not common sense to put all life events together.