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SOC365H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Socialist Feminism, Radical Feminism, Diederik Korteweg

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Study Guide

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Exam Notes
Lecture 1
To study gender relations sociologically
o Gender refers to the socially and culturally constituted behaviours,
activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for
men and women
o Assumption that only gender and not sex, socially constructed
o Gender does not only organizes our identities but social relations in ways
that go beyond the realm of the interpersonal
o Organizes and is organized simultaneously by social structures,
institutions and social actors in ways that benefit some, but not all
o Power is a constitutive element of gender relations
o How we understand gender also structures how we produce knowledge,
and production of knowledge is inseparable from relations of power
o So to study gender sociologically means that we need to take this into
o Gender is socially constructed in interaction among and between people,
social institutions and social structures
o Effect of gender is to create inequality based on perceptions of difference
between women as a group and men as a group
o Process: the interactive dimension of gender construction based on the
idea that women and men are different. Process of creating
distinguishable social statuses for assignment of rights and
responsibilities. Creating the social differences that define what is women
and what is men
o Stratification: difference into system of ranking. Such as dominant
categories are the hegemonic ideals E.g. men. Dichotomy and hierarchy.
What men do is valued more highly, generally, than what women do, even
if they do the same work. Race and class further dichotomize
o Structure: gender divides work in the home and in economic production,
legitimates those in authority and organizes sexuality and emotional life
Women part of role
Approaches into thinking about and studying gender
o Add women and stir: knowledge on women’s experiences, but not
popular approach because lack of knowledge on men’s experience
o Systematic analyses of gender: gender as part of the social structure,
social construct and relations between women and men. Meaning is never
fixed, changes and fluid
o Concerns with difference and diversity: deconstructing of gender
binaries, thinking about intersectional analyses
Lecture 2
Power: unequal relationships constituted in a social field of force
Discourse: group of statements which provide a language for representing a
particular kind of knowledge about a topic

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Deconstruction: analyzing in context the way binary opposition operates,
reversing and displacing its hierarchical construction, rather than accepting how
it is
Descriptive use of gender: gender is a concept associated with the study of
things related to women, relationships between the sexes are social. Says
nothing about why these relationships are constructed as they are, how they
work or how they change
Radical feminism: theories of patriarchy. Women subordination to men. Scott
thinks these theorists fail to show how gender inequality structures all other
inequalities. How gender affects those areas of life that do not seem to be
connected to it
Marxist/Socialist feminism: opposite problem to theorists of patriarchy.
Instead of asserting the primacy of gender as a system of inequality, theoretical
framework cannot but render gender inequality a byproduct of the modes of
production. Gender here has no analytic status of its own
Feminist psychoanalysis: subject formation, social construction of gender and
how it structures the psyche
Intersectionality: gender and race are socially constructed and mutually
constitutive through cultural meanings and representations, material relations
and social structural processes, and power. Gives cultural meanings to each
Lecture 3
Relationship between laws about women and the power of the state
o Women have been invisible as historical subjects
State: compulsory political organization that successfully claims the monopoly
over the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. Political
organization, resources to maintain over a territory
Modern-State: characterized by the rational-legal author. Rule of law and ideas
of state bureaucracy
State does not equal to nation: state is more like different forms of institutions.
Works to claim monopoly. Nation is a shared collective identity. Not necessarily
Nation-State: a particular political organization
Citizenship: having the legal status and legal rights, and participation to the
state. Sense of belonging, categorizes into inclusion or exclusion, for those with
the status or not
Looking into the relationship between production and reproduction enable us to
see the state’s role in mediating gender relations of power
Systems of oppression between men and women, interconnected with the state
to serve the needs of capitalism and patriarchy
Socialist feminist theorist: link between the state’s regulation of the link
between family and the economy. Forcing into women low pay jobs private and
public patriarchy (Haney)
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