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Midterm

SOC212 TEST 2.docx


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
asasd
Study Guide
Midterm

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CONTROL THEORIES 12/4/2012 4:05:00 PM
Text focuses on situational control and less on traditional control theories.
I. EXTERNAL CONTROL THEORIES
A. Introduction
Albert Reese community and personal controls to explain
delinquency
BIG BANANA was Hirschi!
Published book “Causes of Delinquency”
He took a Freudian approach believed the interesting question
wasn’t WHY kids commit delinquent acts but WHY DON’T THEY ALL?
Why doesn’t everyone get involved in crime?
B. Hirschi and the Social Bond
Social bonds individuals establish with society
Prevent kids to complete delinquent behaviour
1. Attachment (애착)
Person’s sensitivity (세심함) and interest in others
Most important to parent’s/peers/schools
Put emphasis on PARENTAL ATTACHMENT
2. Commitment
Time youth spend on conventional activities (school work, pro-
social goals in life)
3. Involvement
Closely related
Involvement in school and other conventional institutions (religious
organizations, clubs, etc.)
4. Belief
Sharing common moral beliefs
Believing in right and wrong
People went out to test this theory. Test of 4000 high school students in
California. For the most part the theory was strongly supported with
regard to PARENTAL ATTACHMENT and PRO-SOCIAL COMMITMENT.

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Problems:
What if the parents are involved?
o You’re really attached to your parents but they’re doing illegal
things
o Same with peers, what if you’re attached with them and
they’re delinquents
o He thought of the STRENGTH of the bonds but not when it
involved anti-individuals
We know less about which bond is most important
Does educational fail cause delinquency or do you become
delinquent by lacking attachment to school
Parental attachments weaken over course of adolescence
How does this theory explain GENDER DIFFERENCES?
o We know girls are less involved in delinquency than boys
o Girls more likely to have STRONG ATTACHMENT
o Not a lot of research that shows girls are more strongly
bonded than boys are
C. Hagan’s Power Control Theory of Delinquency
Potential for control to explain gender differences in delinquency
2 aspects: social class and family control
1. Positions of power in the workplace impact relations in the
household
Power in workplace influences how parents socialize their kids and
has an effect on the household
How they raise boys and girls affects the child’s taste for risks and
delinquency
a) Unbalanced, patriarchal families
Dad’s the king of the hill in the house, husband is employed in
positions of authority, wife doesn’t measure up to this
b) Balanced, egalitarian families
Husband and wives have equal status jobs, high position/high
authority jobs OR they could both have lower class jobs but still
equal in rank
There is no dad and mom is raising kids on her own

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In those families girls gain a kind of FREEDOM reduced control
from their parents over their behaviour
Greater risk for risk-taking more likely to be involved in delinquency
Took gender gap in delinquency seriously, but doesn’t capture all the
dynamics that reflects working parents and socializing their kids. When
women have more power in a workplace, their sons are more critical of
traditional gender schemas and less likely to commit gender delinquency.
II. INTERNAL CONTROL THEORIES
A. Self Control: Gottfredson and Hirschi: crime and criminality
“General Theory of Crime”
One explanation of crime: LOW SELF-CONTROL
Theory talks about:
o Crime
o Criminality tendency to commit a crime
Given the same opportunities to defend, it’s the ones with low self-
control that will commit crimes
Where does low self-control come from?
o Low self control lies in early childhood socialization
o If their parents have bad parenting skills
o This trait they argue is STABLE over the entire life course
They argue their theory applies to ALL CRIME! (from murder to
corporate crime) But they did acknowledge that people in positions
of power would have lower offending rates because to get to that
position of power it is less likely you will have low self-control
La Blanc Montreal/low self control is one of several psychological traits
important for understanding offending
Questions that emerged:
Theory may be circular (순환되는)
o One is causing the other which is causing the same one
Different types of offenders
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