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University of Toronto St. George
Paloma Villegas

P. Villegas Soc 263 Social Inequality Final exam study sheet 1. Equality vs. Equity a. Equity takes into account structural differences that affect opportunity. Equity is not concerned with all things being equal but rather focuses on a holistic approach that takes a greater understanding of people‟s experiences into account. b. Equality is based on “the notion that everyone should be treated the same, and dismisses the reality that not everyone has been or is the same. 2. Neoliberalism and how it operates in different sites a. Emphasis on individualization, privatization, free enterprise, globalization of production and a “race to the bottom” b. Neoliberal reforms in Canada led to Cuts to public programs in the country for working class and racialized communities c. Neoliberalism in Canada i. Process of reducing size of the government and its budget to compete with US ii. Anti-worker legislation policies iii. Privatization iv. Providing corporations with benefits such as tax cuts v. Devolution of welfare state 3. Integrative anti-racism a. Integrative anti-racism “seeks a non-hierarchical discussion of social oppressions without assuming all forms of oppression are unified, consistent, and necessarily equal in their social effects” b. Integrative anti-racism rejects a grand narrative to explain oppression c. The “task of integrative anti-racism is to unravel…interlocking systems of oppression in order to be able to intellectually articulate and engage in meaningful and progressive political action to address social injustice and oppression” 4. Nation/nationalism a. A „nation‟ is a collection of people that have come to believe that they have been shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. That belief is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups around them. Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny” b. work of maintaining nationalism occurs through the dissemination of texts, art and the development of social movements 5. Nation building project in Canada (management of populations and imagining the nation, White settler society/project as foundational to the Canadian nation a. the nation building project in Canada depended upon flexible and constantly transforming race and cultural politics with a twofold aim: managing the diverse populations of the country and also doing the symbolic work of imagining and creating national identity” P. Villegas Soc 263 Social Inequality Final exam study sheet 6. Canada First Movement a. Context: i. -in the mid to late 1800s, what we now would describe as "Canadians" were having difficulties creating a coherent "identity" ii. -faced threats of being forcibly incorporated to the US iii. -French speaking "canada" iv. -there was also a need to differentiate themselves from racialized communities v. -all this led to the canada first movement vi. -Canada=Britain of the North vii. -Canada's geographical location = unique viii. -White Canadians had a link to other 'northern races' (European?) ix. -different from US x. -Linked environment to character xi. -describe environment strong and masculine versus places in south which were described as feminine and therefore "weaker" (gender) 7. Depiction of Canada as the Northern Wilderness a. Symbolically differentiated Canada from both the US and Britain by mobilizing a symbolism of unpeopled and rugged wilderness b. North as masculine and South as feminine 8. Gendered inclusion/exclusion of Asian women to Canada (Dua) a. Through regulatory policies, similar to those applied to Asian male residents, the inclusion of Asian women into the Canadian national formation came to be defined as dangerous to the racialized nation b. Not only was the presence of Asian women now predominantly seen as providing a solution to the problem of mixed race relations, but Asian women were also depicted as protecting white women from the threat of violence by Asian men c. entry of Asian women would protect white women from violence d. As these Canadians pointed out, the inclusion of Asian women allowed for a new and more efficient way of regulating mixed race sexuality. e. The arguments for allowing the entry of Asian women tied their inclusion to the construction of „ethnic communities‟, which in turn, allowed for further racializing of the social geography of the nation. f. the entry of Asian women that allowed for the internal geography of the nation to be racialized, for ethnic communities to be produced 9. Cultural and absolute genocide in relation to residential schools a. residential schools were part of a project that sought to: control indigenous populations (through cultural and absolute genocide) b. Project of forced assimilation led to cultural genocide, which was a racial/racist project P. Villegas Soc 263 Social Inequality Final exam study sheet c. Residential schools were one of many attempts at the genocide of the Aboriginal Peoples inhabiting the area now commonly called Canada. Initially, the goal of obliterating these peoples was connected with stealing what they owned 10. Eurocentric model of education (schooling) a. This Eurocentric model holds some assumptions about teaching and learning (which still have reverberations today) i. Teaching as a moral crusade ii. Aptitude (intelligence) as both inherited and more prominent in some sectors of society iii. Families help in the schooling of children at home 11. Purpose of formal education systems a. Prepare students for the labor market 12. Effects of residential schools on Aboriginal communities a. Compulsory attendance in badly organized and unhygienic facilities. b. Physical exploitation (students worked in farms, industries and households) c. Sexual exploitation d. Nutritional deficiency e. Culture shock f. When they came back, there was mental/health problems because they unlearned things g. Led to divo
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