SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Heterosexuality, Precarious Work, Discrimination Based On Skin Color

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P. Villegas Soc 263 Social Inequality Final exam study sheet
1. Equality vs. Equity
a. Equity takes into account structural differences that affect opportunity. Equity is
not concerned with all things being equal but rather focuses on a holistic approach
that takes a greater understanding of people‟s experiences into account.
b. Equality is based on “the notion that everyone should be treated the same, and
dismisses the reality that not everyone has been or is the same.
2. Neoliberalism and how it operates in different sites
a. Emphasis on individualization, privatization, free enterprise, globalization of
production and a “race to the bottom”
b. Neoliberal reforms in Canada led to Cuts to public programs in the country for
working class and racialized communities
c. Neoliberalism in Canada
i. Process of reducing size of the government and its budget to compete with
ii. Anti-worker legislation policies
iii. Privatization
iv. Providing corporations with benefits such as tax cuts
v. Devolution of welfare state
3. Integrative anti-racism
a. Integrative anti-racism “seeks a non-hierarchical discussion of social oppressions
without assuming all forms of oppression are unified, consistent, and necessarily
equal in their social effects”
b. Integrative anti-racism rejects a grand narrative to explain oppression
c. The “task of integrative anti-racism is to unravel…interlocking systems of
oppression in order to be able to intellectually articulate and engage in meaningful
and progressive political action to address social injustice and oppression”
4. Nation/nationalism
a. A „nation‟ is a collection of people that have come to believe that they have been
shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. That belief
is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups
around them. Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and
promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny”
b. work of maintaining nationalism occurs through the dissemination of texts, art
and the development of social movements
5. Nation building project in Canada (management of populations and imagining the nation,
White settler society/project as foundational to the Canadian nation
a. the nation building project in Canada depended upon flexible and constantly
transforming race and cultural politics with a twofold aim: managing the diverse
populations of the country and also doing the symbolic work of imagining and
creating national identity”
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P. Villegas Soc 263 Social Inequality Final exam study sheet
6. Canada First Movement
a. Context:
i. -in the mid to late 1800s, what we now would describe as "Canadians"
were having difficulties creating a coherent "identity"
ii. -faced threats of being forcibly incorporated to the US
iii. -French speaking "canada"
iv. -there was also a need to differentiate themselves from racialized
v. -all this led to the canada first movement
vi. -Canada=Britain of the North
vii. -Canada's geographical location = unique
viii. -White Canadians had a link to other 'northern races' (European?)
ix. -different from US
x. -Linked environment to character
xi. -describe environment strong and masculine versus places in south which
were described as feminine and therefore "weaker" (gender)
7. Depiction of Canada as the Northern Wilderness
a. Symbolically differentiated Canada from both the US and Britain by mobilizing a
symbolism of unpeopled and rugged wilderness
b. North as masculine and South as feminine
8. Gendered inclusion/exclusion of Asian women to Canada (Dua)
a. Through regulatory policies, similar to those applied to Asian male residents, the
inclusion of Asian women into the Canadian national formation came to be
defined as dangerous to the racialized nation
b. Not only was the presence of Asian women now predominantly seen as providing
a solution to the problem of mixed race relations, but Asian women were also
depicted as protecting white women from the threat of violence by Asian men
c. entry of Asian women would protect white women from violence
d. As these Canadians pointed out, the inclusion of Asian women allowed for a new
and more efficient way of regulating mixed race sexuality.
e. The arguments for allowing the entry of Asian women tied their inclusion to the
construction of „ethnic communities‟, which in turn, allowed for further
racializing of the social geography of the nation.
f. the entry of Asian women that allowed for the internal geography of the nation to
be racialized, for ethnic communities to be produced
9. Cultural and absolute genocide in relation to residential schools
a. residential schools were part of a project that sought to: control indigenous
populations (through cultural and absolute genocide)
b. Project of forced assimilation led to cultural genocide, which was a racial/racist
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