SOCB47 Terms.doc

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Paloma Villegas
Semester
Winter

Description
1. Equality vs. Equity a. Equity takes into account structural differences that affect opportunity. Equity is not concerned with all things being equal but rather focuses on a holistic approach that takes a greater understanding of people’s experiences into account. b. Equality is based on “the notion that everyone should be treated the same, and dismisses the reality that not everyone has been or is the same. 2. Neoliberalism and how it operates in different sites a. Emphasis on individualization, privatization, free enterprise, globalization of production and a “race to the bottom” b. Neoliberal reforms in Canada led to cuts to public programs in the country for working class and racialized communities c. Neoliberalism in Canada i. Process of reducing size of government and its budget to compete with US ii. Anti-worker legislation policies iii. Privatization iv. Providing corporations with benefits such as tax cuts v. Devolution of welfare state 3. Integrative anti-racism a. Integrative anti-racism “seeks a non-hierarchical discussion of social oppressions without assuming all forms of oppression are unified, consistent, and necessarily equal in their social effects” b. Integrative anti-racism rejects a grand narrative to explain oppression c. The “task of integrative anti-racism is to unravel…interlocking systems of oppression in order to be able to intellectually articulate and engage in meaningful and progressive political action to address social injustice and oppression” 4. Nation/nationalism a. A ‘nation’ is a collection of people that have come to believe that they have been shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. That belief is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups around them. Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny” b. Work of maintaining nationalism occurs through the dissemination of texts, art and the development of social movements 5. Nation building project in Canada a. Management of populations and imagining the nation, White settler society/project as foundational to the Canadian nation b. Nation building project in Canada depended upon flexible and transforming race and cultural politics with a dual aim: managing the diverse populations of the country and doing the symbolic work of imagining and creating national identity” 6. Canada First Movement a. Context: i. -In the mid to late 1800s, "Canadians" having difficulties creating a coherent "identity" ii. -Faced threats of being forcibly incorporated to the US iii.-French speaking "Canada" iv. -There was also a need to differentiate themselves from racialized communities v. -All this led to the Canada first movement vi. -Canada=Britain of the North vii. -Canada's geographical location = unique viii. -White Canadians had a link to other 'northern races' (European?) ix. -Different from US x. -Linked environment to character xi. -Describe environment strong and masculine versus places in south which were described as feminine and therefore "weaker" (gender) 7. Depiction of Canada as the Northern Wilderness a. Symbolically differentiated Canada from both the US and Britain by mobilizing a symbolism of unpeopled and rugged wilderness b. North as masculine and South as feminine 8. Gendered inclusion/exclusion of Asian women to Canada (Dua) a. Through regulatory policies, similar to those applied to Asian male residents, the inclusion of Asian women into the Canadian national formation came to be defined as dangerous to the racialized nation b. Not only was the presence of Asian women now predominantly seen as providing a solution to the problem of mixed race relations, but Asian women were also depicted as protecting white women from the threat of violence by Asian men c. As these Canadians pointed out, the inclusion of Asian women allowed for a new and more efficient way of regulating mixed race sexuality. d. The arguments for allowing the entry of Asian women tied their inclusion to the construction of ‘ethnic communities’, which in turn, allowed for further racializing of the social geography of the nation. e. The entry of Asian women that allowed for the internal geography of the nation to be racialized, for ethnic communities to be produced 9. Cultural and absolute genocide in relation to residential schools a. Cultural: Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures b. Residential schools were part of a project that sought to: control indigenous populations (through cultural and absolute genocide) c. Forced assimilation led to cultural genocide, which was a racial/racist project d. Residential schools were one of many attempts at the genocide of the Aboriginal Peoples inhabiting the area now commonly called Canada. Initially, the goal of obliterating these peoples was connected with stealing what they owned 10. Eurocentric model of education (schooling) a. This Eurocentric model holds some assumptions about teaching and learning (which still have aftershocks today) i. Teaching as a moral cause ii. Aptitude (intelligence) as both inherited and more prominent in some sectors of society iii. Families help in the schooling of children at home 11. Purpose of formal education systems a. Prepare students for the labor market 12. Effects of residential schools on Aboriginal communities a. Compulsory attendance in badly organized and unhygienic facilities. b. Physical exploitation (students worked in farms, industries and households) c. Sexual exploitation d. Nutritional deficiency e. Culture shock f. When they came back, there was mental/health problems g. Led to divorce which led to mental health issues (family structure problems) h. Suicide due to mental, physical, sexual abuse 13. Protagonists in Canadian national identity (2 solitudes) a. Protagonist is main character or people that have large importance to plot line b. British and French protagonists 14. Critique of the term visible minority a. Visible minority stresses both the features of being non-white and therefore visible in a way whites are not, and of being politically minor players 15. Reasons for the institutionalization of Multiculturalism (according to official policy vs. what Bannerji tells us) a. Bannerji “The perceived downside to multiculturalism was that in the 1980s it ‘replaced the emphasis on race and racism with an emphasis on cultural diversity” Therefore, through the institutionalization of MC, the claims made by migrants and racialized communities were rearranged to fit the rubric of cultural diversity 16. Role of Multiculturalism in cementing and invisibilizing power relations a. Cemented: i. Multiculturalism fixes identities, cultures and traditions. ii. Are a visible minority and member of specific ethnic community iii. Little room to shift across different static definitions ethnic communities b. MC invisibilize power relations: i. There is racism, homophobia in Canada but people think we are multicultural ii. Ignore power relations of people higher and below us 17. Multiculturalism as a neoliberal form of belonging a. Institutionalization of MC came around same time as rise of neoliberalism i. Emphasis on individualization, privatization, free enterprise, globalization of production and a “race to the bottom” b. MC as a way for Canadians to position them as global subjects, with global tastes and needs and who need to engage with other global subjects into global South 18. Depiction of white residents in Canada as immigrants (versus settlers) (Sharma) 19. Global cities a. Multicultural due to globalization b. Globalization needs key “sites”/geographic locations to carry out economic processes (finance and trade) c. If we focus on these sites, we can view the world not through nations but through global cities that are connected to each other d. Global cities include New York, Tokyo e. Liladrie: “the sites where key functions and resources for the management and coordination of global economic processes are located” f. Global cities employ: i. Cheap workers (make cities run, clean city, restaurant, hotel, etc) ii. White collar workers iii. Foreign workers work at restaurants, hotels, skilled white collar jobs 20. Social reproduction a. Reproduction of classes b. Social reproduction is gendered and radicalized 21. Standard work, non-standard work, Precarious work a. Standard work i. Work hours full day 9-5 ii. Working conditions (safety) iii. Minimum wage + iv. Benefits v. Opportunity for mobility b. Non-standard work i. Overtime without pay ii. Working longer shifts than normal iii. No benefits iv. Laborious work v. Unsafe working conditions vi. Working on weekends vii. Contract work c. Precarious is non-standard i. Poorly paid ii. Insecure 22. Welfare-to-work and its effect on bettering the situation of poor families a. To have access to welfare services, must need to be actively searching for jobs b. Welfare recipients must enter the work force asap, regardless of job c. Welfare recipients are believed to stand a better chance of moving out of poverty and into ‘good jobs’ if they are already working 23. Heteronormativity a. Heteronormativity, and therefore, heterosexuality, are not “natural” or “essential” characteristics of humans. b. “Humanity and heterosexuality are synonymous” c. Assumption that heterosexual relations are the “norm”. 24. Invisibility of race in submissions for equal access to marriage (Lenon) a. Lenon is interested in analyzing how “appeals to a universal gay/lesbian identity and to the notion of the ‘freedom to marry’ produce a white racial legal subject and rely on unmarked whiteness for their success 25. Anti-miscegenation laws a. Racist term meaning mixing of races b. Sexual relations between races c. Law created to prevent white and blacks from having sexual relationships 26. Age of consent debates (protection of some children, incorporation of “feminist” values, moral regulation by the state) a. Debates about “age of consent” reveal an identity of childhood and youth, predominantly girls, as innocent and incompetent and so needing protection b. State actors incorporate elements of feminist values but restabilize gender relations through importance of the heterosexual nuclear family c. Feminists interested in engaging the state in questions of violence against women (and children) and how to change male dominance d. Slut walks e. Cant engage in sexual activity unless 16, 18 for pornography, 14-15 can have sex with anyone 5 years younger, 12-13 with anyone two years younger, anal sex at 18 for unmarried couples 27. Eugenics a. Improving population by breeding desirable characteristics b. Positive eugenics favors those that have offspring c. Negative eugenics eliminates those who are unfit to have children 28. Sterilization campaigns and the role of feminists a. Sterilization campaigns tied to eugenics b. Campaigns to require mental health testing before receiving a marriage license 29. Reasons why different groups were recommended for sterilization and the gendered and racial connotations 30. Normalization of bodies 31. Representations of “fat” bodies and internalization of ideal body norms a. Alternative approach: obesity as produced b. Question how ideas about body norms are produced and how those ideas are detrimental to people (e.g. body image) c. “Neither genetics nor health habits alone determine size; instead, individuals’ weights may develop differently depending on the relationships of sized bodies with psyches and surrounding worlds. Theorizing the physiology of weight as an interactive process calls into question mechanistic or moralistic scientific and culture claims that faulty genes or bad habits cause fat” d. Therefore “size is a social form produced at the intersection of biology, psychology, and culture” 32. Role of schools in shaping body norms a. In school children organized according to age/grade i. This “heightens children’s consciousness of physical differences and encourages body conformity as a condition of belonging” ii. Those who are seen to not belong may be bullied, outcast, etc b. Participants enjoyed participation in physical education i. This changed when identified as fat 33. Obesity as epidemic vs. obesity as produced a. Obesity systemic  Epidemic: disease of the social and biological body b. Produced: size is a social form produced at intersection of biology, psychology, and culture c. Two competing frames that shape dialogue on obesity and overweight in NA i. 1. Obesity as an ‘epidemic’ ii. 2. Obesity as a myth 34. Surveillance and violence to produce ideal bodies a. Women experienced surveillance and violence to get their bodies to comply to normative weights 35. Skin lighteners and their markets a. Skin color as symbolic capital b. Many = toxic c. Yet demand for skin lighteners has increased d. India and Indian Diaspora e. Unsure if the privileging of light skin emerged with colonialism or before. However, colonialism did maintain or support those ideas. f. African American g. House vs. field slaves h. Resistance to color norms i. However skin lighteners still popular, to get “light skin like that of African American celebrities such as actress Halle Berry and singer Beyonce Knowles” 36. Colorism a. Social hierarchy based on shades of skin within and between racial/ethnic groups b. Skin color as symbolic capital 37. Skin color as symbolic capital a. Skin color as symbolic capital may lead some to attempt to acquire light skinned privilege 38. Social versus medical definition of disability a. Medical: lack of participation in society i. Need of improvement through treatment, surgery, rehabilitation b. Social: Communities, institutions, and govt within society are where impairment is transformed into disability and thus identifies society as place of intervention 39. Citizenship as practice and how disability affects it a. Without appropriate care women not able to participate in a meaningful way. b. “Disability challenges our use of simple binaries such as rights versus duties within citizenship debates because the assumption is that these are guided by people with able bodies who are free to accept assistance or not” c. Therefore citizenship rights must
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