SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Blue-Collar Worker, Gentrification, Africville

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Published on 25 Jan 2013
1. Equality vs. Equity
a. Equity takes into account structural differences that affect opportunity. Equity is
not concerned with all things being equal but rather focuses on a holistic approach
that takes a greater understanding of people’s experiences into account.
b. Equality is based on “the notion that everyone should be treated the same, and
dismisses the reality that not everyone has been or is the same.
2. Neoliberalism and how it operates in different sites
a. Emphasis on individualization, privatization, free enterprise, globalization of
production and a “race to the bottom”
b. Neoliberal reforms in Canada led to cuts to public programs in the country for
working class and racialized communities
c. Neoliberalism in Canada
i. Process of reducing size of government and its budget to compete with US
ii. Anti-worker legislation policies
iii. Privatization
iv. Providing corporations with benefits such as tax cuts
v. Devolution of welfare state
3. Integrative anti-racism
a. Integrative anti-racism “seeks a non-hierarchical discussion of social oppressions
without assuming all forms of oppression are unified, consistent, and necessarily
equal in their social effects”
b. Integrative anti-racism rejects a grand narrative to explain oppression
c. The “task of integrative anti-racism is to unravel…interlocking systems of
oppression in order to be able to intellectually articulate and engage in meaningful
and progressive political action to address social injustice and oppression”
4. Nation/nationalism
a. A ‘nation’ is a collection of people that have come to believe that they have been
shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future. That belief
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is usually nurtured by a common language and a sense of otherness from groups
around them. Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and
promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny”
b. Work of maintaining nationalism occurs through the dissemination of texts, art
and the development of social movements
5. Nation building project in Canada
a. Management of populations and imagining the nation, White settler
society/project as foundational to the Canadian nation
b. Nation building project in Canada depended upon flexible and transforming race
and cultural politics with a dual aim: managing the diverse populations of the
country and doing the symbolic work of imagining and creating national identity”
6. Canada First Movement
a. Context:
i. -In the mid to late 1800s, "Canadians" having difficulties creating a
coherent "identity"
ii. -Faced threats of being forcibly incorporated to the US
iii. -French speaking "Canada"
iv. -There was also a need to differentiate themselves from racialized
v. -All this led to the Canada first movement
vi. -Canada=Britain of the North
vii. -Canada's geographical location = unique
viii. -White Canadians had a link to other 'northern races' (European?)
ix. -Different from US
x. -Linked environment to character
xi. -Describe environment strong and masculine versus places in south which
were described as feminine and therefore "weaker" (gender)
7. Depiction of Canada as the Northern Wilderness
a. Symbolically differentiated Canada from both the US and Britain by mobilizing a
symbolism of unpeopled and rugged wilderness
b. North as masculine and South as feminine
8. Gendered inclusion/exclusion of Asian women to Canada (Dua)
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a. Through regulatory policies, similar to those applied to Asian male residents, the
inclusion of Asian women into the Canadian national formation came to be
defined as dangerous to the racialized nation
b. Not only was the presence of Asian women now predominantly seen as providing
a solution to the problem of mixed race relations, but Asian women were also
depicted as protecting white women from the threat of violence by Asian men
c. As these Canadians pointed out, the inclusion of Asian women allowed for a new
and more efficient way of regulating mixed race sexuality.
d. The arguments for allowing the entry of Asian women tied their inclusion to the
construction of ‘ethnic communities’, which in turn, allowed for further
racializing of the social geography of the nation.
e. The entry of Asian women that allowed for the internal geography of the nation to
be racialized, for ethnic communities to be produced
9. Cultural and absolute genocide in relation to residential schools
a. Cultural: Any form of assimilation or integration by other cultures or ways of life
imposed on them by legislative, administrative or other measures
b. Residential schools were part of a project that sought to: control indigenous
populations (through cultural and absolute genocide)
c. Forced assimilation led to cultural genocide, which was a racial/racist project
d. Residential schools were one of many attempts at the genocide of the Aboriginal
Peoples inhabiting the area now commonly called Canada. Initially, the goal of
obliterating these peoples was connected with stealing what they owned
10. Eurocentric model of education (schooling)
a. This Eurocentric model holds some assumptions about teaching and learning
(which still have aftershocks today)
i. Teaching as a moral cause
ii. Aptitude (intelligence) as both inherited and more prominent in some
sectors of society
iii. Families help in the schooling of children at home
11. Purpose of formal education systems
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