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SOC207H Compiled Lecture Notes for Midterm

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Stephen Reid

SOC207H Midterm Lecture Notes Conceptual Tools - Industrialization o Definition: accumulating and processing society resources o In an industry society, sources of energy like fuel, coal, electricity are used in a production system o Also uses technology to process raw materials o Egypt would be a pre-industrial society - Capitalist production system o Relationships between individuals in the system o Small numbers of individuals (capitalists) who own the means of production - Capitalist industrialization o Work for capitalists o Small number of people own and control the process of creating goods and services and the majority of people work for them for a wage Capitalist development in Europe - Feudalism o Producer is also the consumer; the idea of selling labour for wage didn‟t exist o Borrowing and lending were considered sinful o Pre-capitalist economy: wage-labour rare idea of selling one‟s labour work for a wage - Mercantile capitalist (1500s) o In this stage, wealth fueled the growth of industrial capitalist – allowed for the accumulation of wealth needed to invest in industrial technology o Role of states becomes more prominent (merchant companies pressured the government to advance goals of trade – to encourage export and discourage imports) o The goal was to encourage export & trading o To move into industrial capitalism, you need a lot of money to create machineries - Industrial capitalism (early 1700s) o Home-based outputting system  Produce things at homes and give them to merchants and merchants sell them o Cottage industry o Factory system o Steam engine created Industrialization and the organization of work (consequences of industrial capitalism) - Independent artisans and peasants became wage workers o They went from having a skill to having to sell those skills for wage. They no longer had control over how they were organizing their work - “the crisis of the craftsman” o With the rise of the industry, people no longer hired apprentices o Apprentices from having skills and control of those skills had to sell those skills for wage - Issues related to race and racism o Race  Race as a relational status  Socially constructed, rather than biological  Institutional racism: systemic, embedded in institutions and society  In Canada, immigrants who are not white do more labour and less wage  Non-white immigrants do more dangerous jobs i.e. mining, lumber  Immigrants were found in the worst types of jobs  Between 1901 and 1914 there were over 100 strikes; when people are pushed to extreme conditions they resist  With the rise of industry there was resistance among workers and racialized occupations  Immigrant workers were seen as less likely to confront their bosses about their poor working conditions Industrialization and Gender - Sex vs. gender o Gender is socially constructed o Sex is the biological distinction between sexes (i.e. male and female) o Gender is the socially constructed difference between masculinity and femininity o Masculinity and femininity are based on access to resources in society - Three important points: women‟s work has always been undervalued, but women have always played a crucial role since the beginning. Focusing on paid employment and ignoring unpaid work provides us with an incomplete picture of who gets more power, why some work is seen as more skilled than other work - Male-female differences in employment are almost solely a product of socially-created gender roles and ideologies (devaluation of women‟s work) - Focusing on paid employment and ignoring the unpaid domestic labour of women provides us with an incomplete picture of the development of capitalism - Being in the advantageous group, you have more access to resources in society Industrialization and gender: separation of spheres - Women‟s work restricted: o Physical separation of home and workplace o Increased gender division of labour  Breadwinner/homemaker o Ideological separation of public and private spheres  Family wage  Agreement among capitalist and male workers – workers would be paid a wage high enough for survival of a family - Social reproduction is another term of women‟s unpaid work which encompasses a bit more o Women‟s unpaid work at home, childcare o Maintenance of family life, within family, across family - Family wage ideology o A justification for the sexual division of labour o Reduced women‟s presence in any industry o It did increase quality of life for families - Women could do textile work if they were single, but as soon as they got married, they were not allowed because they became “homemakers” Canada‟s industrialization - Different than in Europe: 1. Later because Canada was a colony a. Canada was still a colony in the 18 century when there was industrialization in Europe 2. Immigration became important source of labour during labour shortages 3. Raw materials for export a. Raw materials were non-finished goods or natural resources (timber, fur were key for an export system) b. There was a direct U.S investment in Canada c. The convergence thesis: technological innovation is inevitable; it‟s gonna spread globally 4. Women‟s labour expanded (not restricted) a. In Europe, the rise of family wage created a sexual division of labour, did not happen in Canada b. Because Canada was a colony, we had this home outputting system for a longer time How was Canada‟s industrialization gendered? - Women‟s work gradually expanded: o Longer integration of home and workplace  Women were home-based, but as time passes women entered the labour market more  In Europe, the industry revolution restricted women‟s labour, actually expanded women‟s labour in Canada o Less gender division of labour o Women‟s production continued to be private and isolated  Women‟s work was seen as home-based, and work for/from the family. It was not considered work but seen as part of being a woman How was Canada‟s industrialization racialized? - Dilemma: how to create a „reserve pool of labour‟? o Reserve pool of labour is a group of workers who are available when you need them and you can get rid of them when you don‟t need them anymore - Solution: immigrant workers + institutional racism o Laws bent (i.e. head taxes) on excluding Chinese when no longer needed o Chinese workers were barred from unions and skilled work - Economic interests of employers, industrialists, determined immigration policy Macro level theories - Adam Smith o Competition model o Competition = growth & wealth, driven by countries competing against one another o Industrialization = good o Consequences of capitalism = wealth for all  Wealth for capitalists: higher productivity and profit  Wealth trickles down to workers as economy grows, better jobs are created  The need for countries to compete with one another leads to growth and development - Marx and Engels o The competition brings exploitation o Conflict model  Social relations of production  Sees exploitation and filled with conflict and control, while Smith sees competition and wealth o Capitalism based on two major classes:  Bourgeoisie: owners of means of production  Proletariat: wage labourers o Consequences of capitalism = exploitation, alienation, inequality  Proletariat revolution (this did not happen)  Proletariats will become so large that will overthrow the bourgeoisie Summary - Work organization changes across time & place - Economic changes are closely linked to social changes in women‟s work and immigrant labour - There are different theories to explain the causes and consequences of industrialization o Concepts: control, power, conflict, competition, inequality, institutional racism, gender SOC207H Lecture 2 Fordism - Refers to a system of mass production and mass consumption - Organization of production focused on the mass production of standardized goods - Started in the 1940s to the 1960s - During this time, mass consumption combined to create a sustained economic boom, which led to material advancement - Utilizes scientific management and assembly-line technologies - Vertical integration: ownership of supply and distribution networks - We‟re talking about Henry Ford when we talk about Fordism - Assembly line is all about standardization - Mode of regulation: Keynesian economic policies o Active government intervention in the marketplace prevents instability - This mass production system requires people to mass consume it (supply demand) - During this time, there was a mass boom in economic growth (people were making more money) - Mass production of cars - During ford regime, it was tied to a particular set of policies called Keynesian o The rise of unions occurred during this time (prevent dangerous work conditions) o Support for descent wages o Rise of unemployment benefits o A main point about Keynesian was about government intervention & regulation (to ensure stability) o The goal was protection of the mode of regulation. Protecting domestic markets as opposed to imports and exports from other countries Crisis of Fordism - Replaced by post-fordism - In late 1960s economic growth really started to slow down - Elements to the fall of Fordism: 1. Inflationary pressures made some firms uncompetitive (i.e. full employment) a. Created inflation b. People needed descent wages, but this put so much pressures on the market „cause it costs too much 2. Difficult to achieve continuous 3. Productivity increases and wage increases (more work, more pay) 4. Global pressures and recessions in 1970s weakened profits/growth 5. Postmodern consumption patterns led to demand for specialty/customized goods a. Once you have enough money, you want a niche market because you don‟t want what everyone else has 6. Need for adaptable work organization to meet new demands a. I.e. one specialist is not at work, other specialists cannot do his work because they are not trained to do it 7. Erosion of Keynesianism a. Taste changed, economists started to change their minds (what‟s doable), so there‟s erosion. Got replaced b. 1960-80s brought an attack to Keynesian ideals, blaming it for poor economic performance in the states. Adaptations of new models began - People demanded different things (mass production means there was a large amount of the same thing produced, people did not want to get the same things as everyone else) - It was so successful that it laid seeds to be destroyed later The Post-Industrial Society Daniel Bell - Rise of knowledge workers o Production of knowledge o Power resides in the access to knowledge - Reduce polarization of classes o You just have to have the access to knowledge; knowledge for the labour market is accessible in post-secondary education. If everyone were to gain more knowledge, there would be more equality - Saw post-industrial society a very promising thing - Argued that knowledge workers are the most important class in the society Robert Reich - 3 types of workers: symbolic analysts (information and symbol processing) and routine production workers (assembly line, repetitive workers) and service workers (retail, people care, hospitality) o These are three different classes o Symbolic analysts: engineers, scientists, etc o Routine production workers: people who work in factories and produce things o Service workers: very important class, the rise of service industry (i.e. security guards) o Dependent on the knowledge class or symbolic analysts who make the most. There‟s a need for maintenance amongst production workers. The service industry is on the rise. The latter two are at an economic disadvantage - Increasing polarization amongst new classes of workers - Had a pessimistic view in post-industrial society - Saw a growth of more classes Globalization - Key related changes o Economic: new regime of accumulation (promotion of a free market)  I.e. rise of industrialization, “money crossing border”  Increased mobility and trans-national corporations  When we start to harmonize our tastes, we start to see ideological changes o Ideological  Liberalizing trades o Expansion of IT o Political: new mode of regulation (Cohen and Kennedy) o Cultural  The idea of global economy, we‟re not talking about “nations” anymore o Mobility of labour  People moving across border to work  In a truly globalized area, we‟d have no borders. We‟d be working together. However, the reality is transnational institutions are happening. For example, Canada‟s company working in India. Labour abroad is cheaper. Local workers are getting stable jobs and the hiring of migrant, flexible, contingent workers is temporary Deregulation: no government intervention, never happens Industrial restructuring in Canada - Deindustrialization o Factory closures o Factory relocation (to non-western locations because it‟s cheaper) o Mass of shift in labour organization in Canada - Manufacturing  service based economy - New conservative political „doctrines‟ (i.e. lessening of government regulation) - Current round of restructuring = response to globalization, especially economic globalization Sector/occupation changes - Industry: particular type of economic activity o Primary sector (resource extraction) o Secondary sector (manufacturing and construction, use raw goods to produce something  biggest in canada) o Tertiary/service sector (exchange of nontangible goods, exchange of services) - 1980s onwards in Canada: primary and secondary sectors  service sector o Technology replacing labour o Reduction in primary sector o More disposable income, leisure time (a rise of leisure, social class) - Another rise of different class of workers is self-employed - Decline of agricultural farms Post-Fordism - Characteristics of post-fordism o Contradictions within Fordism o Erosion of Fordist (Keynesian) mode of regulation o Global demands + robotization o Rise of regime of accumulation o If mass production is producing same goods and people don‟t want the same thing anymore, there must be a shift (post-fordism is a shift) o Created competition between economies and countries o Influenced by Japanese production (lean production)  Smaller companies are better „cause there‟s more trust networks  Based on support of firms to build up networks  Biggest component of lean production is organization of work, functional flexibility (constant technological improvements to meet demands on the spot – just in time production J.I.T) - One reason for post-fordism shift is because companies want to make money - To cheapen labour force: 1. replace permanent workers with casual workers, 2. downsizing (cut off workers) - Goal o Based on Japanese lean production o Create a flexible workforce + organizational structure  Support for firms to trade with each other and contracting out  Based on functional flexibility. Interchanging parts to make something different. One worker is trained to be able to do more than one job The Flexible Firm - Core of permanent workers, periphery of contingent workers (non-standard, casual workers) o Flexible firm is based on these two types of workers - Firm strategies: o Numerical flexibility  Need to be able to alternate size of workforce to meet demand as demand changes  In Christmas time, can hire seasonal workers to meet demand. When Christmas is done can fire these workers o Functional flexibility  Need to be able to have workers do different things (so not just one person doing one thing, workers have to perform more tasks so don‟t have to hire more people)  Learning different skills is good, but you‟re doing more work for the same pay o Pay/wage flexibility  Having two classes of workers is good but should pay the casual workers less so they get less benefits Stelco‟s Hilton Works - Mass reduction & mass layoffs in workers - In Stelco, o Numerical flexibility: after you lay off workers you call them back (layoff and recall system)  Overtime (cheaper to pay core workers overtime than to hire new people) o Functional flexibility  Core workers who don‟t get laid off they get bumping and can be put in different spots when demand changes (learn new skills)  Constant moving/restraining o Pay/wage flexibility  All those contingent workers who are not in the union do not get benefits  No wage increases Key Debates - Is globalization and restructuring good or bad? o Positives are access to global markets o Bad things are social inequalities (Bell vs. Reich) - Flexibility for whom? o Flexibility for the workers or employers? What kind of flexibility? What are the implications of that? o More flexibility for mangers at Stelco o Core/periphery organization  Core: stable employment with flexibility, autonomy  Periphery: contingent, insecure work Summary - Countries and industries respond to globalization by restructuring - Restructuring has resulted in Post-Fordism - Firms have various strategies to ensure a flexible workforce - Core/periphery workforce = polarization of work experiences SOC207H Lecture 3 Human capital theory - Those with the most education, experience and skills get the good jobs Conceptual critique of human capital theory - Assumptions o There is an assumption of rationality; individuals are always making calculated rational logical choices o Capitalists assume people make rational choices o Jobs or openings are not open to everyone, this is where social networks come in o Overlooks the following: o Employer demand for certain workers in certain jobs o The possibility of employer discrimination o The structure of the labour market o Ignores social inequalities between workers of gender or race o The role of non-labour market institutions (i.e. family and schools) o The role of non-economic forms of capital - Critique o Ignores the demand side and overlooks social relations o Demand side perspective is the characteristics of labour market, jobs, class structures, gender-race structure Class differences in human capital - Social class – class differences in education 1. Different aspirations and expectations a. If you‟re wealthy parents expect you to succeed more b. Middle class parents serve as role models c. Children from higher class evaluate their own expectations higher and feel more competent than lower class children 2. Economic advantages a. Income itself leads to better access to education (i.e. the ability to study in private school) b. Better neighbourhoods (i.e. going to school without fear) c. Middle class children have a higher chance to go on to university and complete high school than children from disadvantaged families d. Disadvantaged children are 3 times higher than middle class children to drop out of school 3. Cultural capital a. Relationship between social class and education b. Children from disadvantaged families have less cultural capital c. Cultural capital is the behaviour, beliefs, competency d. Schools themselves are classed (there is upper class built into them) e. Human capital is the golden ticket to good jobs Occupational mobility research - Social mobility is how one individual move from one position of society to another o It is about how you move and where you move to - Occupational mobility research is concerned with intergenerational mobility o It looks like movement across from one generation to another - How much intergenerational mobility do we observe independent of effects of changes in occupational structure o Circulatory mobility  Exchange mobility (people with more merit meaning or human capital move to a higher position)  What you have = where you move o Structural mobility  Changes/shifts in labour market due to structural changes in the economy - Support for HCT o Education influences occupational status - Beyond HCT o Parents occupational status is often transmitted to their children through class (it matters what you do but it also matters where you came from) Class differences in human capital - Status attainment research (more concerned with intragenerational mobility) o Only looks at and focuses on one person‟s career o To what degree does education, a person‟s previous job, or social location determine mobility over one‟s career? o Your previous job influences what job you‟re gonna get - Support for HCT o Education influences occupational status - Beyond HCT o Very first job strongest predictor of next job o First job linked to education o Education linked to parent‟s occupation Critique of occupational mobility & status attainment research - View of labour market o Assuming economy as a single open labour market o Looking at how individuals move through positions - Ignores discrimination (demand-side forces) - Ignores gender (who gets what type of jobs) o Unable to explain gender differences in the ability to translate high education into better occupations - Ignores cultural capital o Inability to explain fully how social origin affects labour market opportunities Human capital of immigrants - The human capital of immigrants o Human capital theory informs immigration policy  Points system emphasizes education  In 1967 Points System introduced occupational experience as a key criteria of getting into the country  Points system became even higher in 2002  In 2004 there was 44% that had a university degree o Predictions of human capital theory  Immigrants have more education than Canadians  Immigrants should be seen as more valuable for jobs o Statistical test  „Control‟ for human capital to estimate effects of immigrant status  Looking at regression; explaining a variable on wages  Should explain no difference between Canadian born citizens and immigrants Earnings as deviations from national mean - Immigrants actually make more than Canadian born citizens - Immigrant women make roughly the same as Canadian born women - All immigrant groups make less than their Canadian counterparts - After controlling for human capital, there is actually something else going on that human capital cannot explain. *Women of visible mino
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