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SOC101Y1 Final: SOC101 Final Exam Study Guide

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian O.Caron

UTSG -SOC101Y1- FinalExamStudyGuide SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY   th Sept 14 , 2016  Lecture 1 – Introduction to the Sociology  What is Sociology?  Sociology is the systematic study of human action in social context. It is based on the idea that our relations  with other people create opportunities for us to think and act but also limits our thoughts and actions. ‐ The study of  development, structure, and functioning of human society. Studies of institutions and  structures   ‐ Opening and closing of opportunities  ‐ Study of social patterns and problems; societal norms and deviance  Structure and Agency  ‐ Two components of sociology  o What sociology is and what it does ‐ We are agents of our own lives, we are in charge of our own decisions  ‐ Example of education:  o Things that can impact our abilities to do well  Parents/Family  Access to technology  The educational institution itself  Authority  Organizations  Media  Personal health (physical and mental)  Living situati (house, financial, etc,) o Critique of neo‐liberal subject o Opportu nities and constraints in school are not evenly distributed Philosophical Foundations  Underlying sociology is philosophy and its concepts of:  ‐ Ontology: What is real?  o Set of assumptions that is the foundation of the discipline that holds those that exist that is what we study ‐ Epistemology: How do we know what we know?  o Empirical question, unable to answer with science Early social philosophers contributed to classical sociology theory through these fundamental tenets:  ‐ Thomas Hobbes’s assertion that government’s appropriate role lies in preserving peace while  allowing individuals to pursue their self‐interests  ‐ John Locke’s belief in individual freedom and autonomy  ‐ Charles de Montesquieu’s comparative methodology and his appreciation for cultural diversity  ‐ Jean‐Jacques Rousseau’s analysis of the social contract and his belief in individual autonomy  Birth of Sociology  ‐ The Scientific Revolution (16th century) encouraged the use of evidence to substantiate theories  ‐ The Democratic Revolution (18th Century) encouraged the view that human action can change  society  ‐ The Industrial Revolution (19th century) gave sociologists their subject matter  o Accompanied industrialization and urbanization  o Majority of human beings lived in rural communities   Industrialization ‐> people gathering more and more into big cities   Millions living in close proximity of eachother  ‐ Gave the need for new knowledge, health, education  ‐ What do you need to support and grow and to have a content society  Sociology for a changing world  ‐ Industrialization  ‐ Urbanization  ‐ Secularization  Key Figures to Remember:  ‐ Rationalization  Durkheim, Marx, Weber, Simmel and others that  ‐ Globalization  tried to make sense of those changes      Sociology – Asking a set of questions:  Considered the founding fathers of sociology  ‐ How do we see the world?  ‐ How we interact with the world?  ‐ How are social norms formed?  ‐ What are the effects of your class position on how you live your life?  ‐ What racial and ethnic group do you identify yourself with?  ‐ How do you feel your gender shapes who you are?    The Sociological Imagination  ‐ The sociological perspective stresses the social contexts in which people live and how these contexts  influence their lives. At the core of this perspective is the sociological imagination, a term coined by  C. Wright Mills (1959)  ‐ The sociological imagination is a sociological vision – a way of looking at the world that allows links  between the apparently private problems of the individual and important social issues  ‐ Neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without  understanding both  ‐ At the centre of the sociological perspective is the question of how people are influenced by their  society – the group of people with whom they share a culture and territory  ‐ To find out why people do what they do, sociologists look at social location, or where people are  located in a particular society, sociologists consider occupation, income, education, gender, age,  ethnicity, family, mass media and others  The social  ‐ These elements that constitute the social affect our:  o Opinions  o Values  o Beliefs  o Knowledge  o Habits  o Tastes  o Desires  o Dreams     Objectives of Sociology  ‐ Sociological research is undertaken with the objective of:  o Describing the social world  o Understanding the social world   What’s going on with these families   Understanding the contexts   What are the factors that impact   What makes these jurisdictions for comparison   What are the differences   Understanding the social world  o Influencing or improving the social world in which we live   Is it working in maximum efficiency    The Compass, the Lenses and the Snowflake  ‐ Compass:  Sociology as a compass is about helping to show you places and ideas you might not have  known about.  o Did you know that...?  o Did you know about...?  ‐ Lenses:  Sociology as a set of lenses is about helping you look at things you may already have been  familiar with, but from multiple, various, perhaps new perspectives.  o Had you thought it like this?  o Had you looked at it this way?  ‐ Snowflake: We are unique!          SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY st Sept 21 , 2016 Lecture 2 – Sociological Knowledge and Science Common Sense - Rich, complex, key to everyday living - Relies on authority, tradition, and firsthand experience - Suspends doubt about the world – more likely to take the world as it is - Focus is on action - Different common sense that we picked up in different situations o Learned from our parents o Schools o Authority o Media o Etc. Social Construction of Reality - The way we understand ‘reality’ is shaped by the society in which we live - Every era has its own aspiration, values, and standards o Decades of living through huge events, influence changes within us as individuals and society as a whole - Multiple social realities o Meanings we attach to our actions varies our actions and reactions of people - Our experience of reality may therefore be challenged and changed o We don’t have a right to say who’s social realities are right or wrong Distantiation Way to talk about the process in which you create distantiation from something - Eyes of an outsider o When we’re out to a place we’ve never been to (discovering) we find a lot of new things, we pick up so many things. We notice these things because it’s a contrast of the only places we’re used to o People who live their take for granted the space that surrounds them as they’ve seen it their entire lives - Gaining insight through increased social distance(Mannheim 2001) - Happens through major periods of change – key to birth of science - World is no longer taken for granted Scientific Knowledge - Calls the world into doubt - Embraces skepticism - World is investigated for answers, for questioning rather than immediate action - Science is about meticulously controlling for errors and go beyond tradition ,authority, and firsthand experience - Rigorous process of considering all possibilities - Drawing on information from a larger field of cases - Offering conclusions based on careful observations - Double hermeneutics – interpretations of interpretations - Two-way relationship with common sense knowledge - Reconcile common sense (and often taken-for-granted) understandings with scientific knowledge     Characteristics of a critical thinker - Independence of mind o A commitment and imposition favourable to autonomous thinking,  i.e. thinking for oneself - Intellectual curiosity o The disposition to wonder about the world - Intellectual courage o The willingness to evaluate all ideas, beliefs, or viewpoints fairly, and the courage to take a position - Intellectual humility o Awareness of the limits of one’s knowledge  Can research a topic for decades, doesn’t mean we know it all - Intellectual empathy o Be conscious of the need to put oneself int eh place of others in order to understand them  Put yourself in their shoes, see it from their point of views - Intellectual perseverance o The willingness to pursue intellectual insights and truths in spite of difficulties, obstacles, and frustration - Reflexive disposition o Awareness of one’s own approach is fallible Foundation of Social Science - Science is about o 1. Logic (theory) o 2. Observation (methods) - Study of social regularities o Social research aims to find patterns of regularity in social life - Data: Empirical facts, meaningless in and of themselves: they become meaningful when they are presented or considered in relation to a theory - Theory: A tentative explanation of some observed regularity Social Structure - Social Structure: Relatively stable patterns of social relations that affect our thoughts, feelings, actions and identity - 3 levels of social structure: o 1. Microstructures  Patterns of intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interaction o 2. Macrostructures  Patterns of social relations outside and above one’s circle of intimates and acquaintances o Global structures  Patterns of social relations outside and above the national level Sociology’s Four Major Theoretical traditions [1] Functionalism Theory - Functionalism: How is social order supported by macrostructures? (Broad trends; social order) - Stresses that human behavior is governed by stable patterns of social relations (“social structures”) o Shows how social structures can either maintain or undermine social stability o Suggests social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences o Argues that re-establishing equilibrium is best way to solve most social problems     [2] Conflict Theory - Conflict Theory: How is social inequality maintained and challenged? (power and inequality, most societies have different levels of power) Focuses on large, macro-level structures (e.g., class relations) o Shows how major patterns of inequality produce social stability in some circumstances & social change in others o Stresses how members of privileged groups seek to maintain advantages while members of subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs o Typically recommends eliminating privilege as a means of reducing social conflict and increasing the sum of human welfare - Conflict theory and Karl Marx o Central to Marx’s ideas was class conflict (struggle between classes to resist & overcome opposition of other classes) o Marx believed workers would…Ultimately become aware of their exploitation (i.e., develop class consciousness) o Form trade unions & labor parties, which would end private ownership of property & bring about a “communist” society - Conflict theory and Max Weber o Weber noted growth of the service sector of economy, with its many manual workers & professionals o Argued many members of these occupational groups stabilize society because they enjoy higher status & income than manual workers employed in manufacturing (middle class) o Showed class conflict is not the only driving force of history o Argued politics & religion also are important sources of historical change [3] Symbolic Interactionism ‐ Symbolic Interactionism: How do people create meaning when they communicate in micro level settings? - Everyone likes different things, how people make sense of their relationships, jobs. o Focuses on interpersonal communication in micro level social settings o Emphasizes social life is possible only because people attach meanings to things o Stresses people help to create their social circumstances, not merely react to them o Sometimes validates unpopular and unofficial viewpoints thereby increasing our understanding and tolerance of people who may be different from us o Arose out of influence of Weber, Mead, & Goffman: o Weber emphasized importance of Verstehen: Empathetically understanding people’s motives & meanings they attach to things to gain a clear sense of the significance of their actions o Mead argued individual’s sense of self is formed in the course of interaction with other people o Goffman compared social interaction to a carefully staged play, complete with front stage, backstage, defined roles, & wide range of props o Social construction o Is a variant of symbolic interactionism o Argues that when people interact, they typically assume things are naturally or innately what they seem to be o Suggests apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally [4] Feminism ‐ Feminism: What are the social sources of patriarchy in both macro and micro settings? (Interrogating categories; how did masculinity/feminine norms come to be?) o Focuses on various aspects of patriarchy (system of male domination in society) o Suggests male domination and female subordination are determined by structures of power and social convention rather than biological necessity o Examines operation of patriarchy in both micro level and macro level social settings o Recommends eliminating patterns of gender inequality, broaden its focus to beyond gender     SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Sept 28 , 2016 Lecture 3 – Research Methods Post-Structuralism vs. Grand Narratives - Post-Structuralism: An extension and critique of structuralism, especially as used in critical textual analysis - Grand narratives: Role of function or purpose of different institutions and processes o Each of these theoretical approaches have something to say o Answer or series of questions that applies to it all o All encompassing explanations - Rejects universalism and essentialism by challenging the idea of fixed structures and meanings - Rejects the notion that ideas, individuals, groups, institutions, and practices have a core, stable, true essence that defines them for all time and all places - Moves away from seeking universal social laws, focus instead on how categories come into being and come to be seen the way they are - Key figure : Michel Foucault & Pierre Bourdieu - Major associated strands: critical race theory, post colonial theory, queer theory, and many others o What does race mean o What does class mean o What does gender mean Approaching Theory: Sociology of Knowledge - Affinity vs Dogmatism o Everyday life we have certain affinities towards different things o Dogmatism: The tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true, without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others - Theories: Ways of looking (i.e. understanding) parts of the world o All of them are models, they each offer you a set of lenses to maybe notice something you had not noticed before  i.e. lenses when you’re out driving, in school, at home - Concepts: Clusters of cases that allow to distinguish two things from each other o i.e. Race  Different meanings and ideas attached to it  People attach different meanings to 1 thing o i.e. Colour – Blue  Many shades of blue - Don’t be dismissive Dialectics of Social Research 1. Idiographic vs Nomothetic: a. (idiographic) Explaining one case in great detail b. (Nomothetic) Explaining a set of cases using a handful of factors i. Naming your child 2. Inductive vs. Deductive: a. (Inductive) starts with an observation or question b. (deductive) starts with general theory, statement or hypothesis 3. Quantitative vs Qualitative 4. Pure Research vs Applied Research     a. (Pure) Foremost interested in understanding b. (Applied) Foremost interested in application i. i.e. positive-negative consequences Approaches to Science Premodern, modern, and postmodern view - Premodern View - Objectivity o Observation of the world can occur in a neutral fashion without being influenced by theory or culture or personal assumptions  “We all see the same thing”  Biased  Description based entirely on the object  RESEARCH - Subjectivity o Observation of the world is influence by theory or cultural or personal assumptions  “you don’t see that”?  It does match who’s doing the description - Value freedom (positivism) vs value committed (critical approach) Values Filtering into Research Self enters at various stages of sociological research 1. Stage One: a. Researchers’ values help them decide which problems are worth investigating 2. Stage Two: a. Values lead researchers to formulate and adopt theories for interpreting and explaining those problems 3. Stage Three: a. Researchers’ interpretations are influenced by previous research i. What’s been done vs. what hasn’t been done 4. Stage Four: a. Methods used to gather data mould researchers’ perceptions i. More comfortable with different methods The key is choice; values play a role every time a choice has to be made - Question is: are those choices considered reasonable and legitimate given accepted scientific standards? Social Web - Everything is connected - Shaped and defined by identifiable patterns - Sociologist zoom in on one portion at a time - Follow one line, focus on one intersection - Each sociologist makes choices Conducting Research: The Research Process 1. Identify a problem 2. Review existing research literature 3. Formulate research question 4. Operationalize 5. Select research method 6. Collect data/sampling 7. Findings     8. Analyze data/discussion 9. Reflections 10. Develop the conclusion Operationalization Measurement: Researchers use mental constructs or concepts (i.e. race, class, gender) - At outset, researchers need to engage in operationalization: procedure by which researchers establish criteria for assigning values to variables 0 how are you measuring the concept? What counts and does not count? - Linked to definition but speaks more to actual measurement -> how will you measure/observe concept x, y, and z? Main Methods of Sociology 1. Field Methods: study how individuals interact in everyday settings a. Participant observation 2. Surveys, interviews, focus groups: a. Asks about knowledge, attitudes, opinions, behaviours 3. Analysis of existing documents and official statistics a. i.e. content analysis What is Content Analysis? Content analysis is the study of recorded human communication. This includes detailed, systematic analysis of “text” to identify patterns or themes - “Text” has a broad definition here that includes all sorts of human communications o Newspapers, magazines, books, journals o Government or NGO documents/websites o Sermons, speeches, debates o Social media sites o Television, radio/podcasts o Police reports, laws, legal decisions o Commercials, ads o Paintings, logos, graffiti, murals o Etc. - When researchers want to identify what’s in the media, they use content analysis - Researchers usually go beyond description, adding some form of meaningful comparison – to what it once was, to what it is in other media, or to what it would be if it reflected society accurately o i.e. Researchers can explore if media content has changed over time, such as whether the portrayals of mothers in first-grade readers have kept pace with evolving views of gender roles in society - Content analysis can be quantitative, qualitative or both o Manifest content, that is readily visible, surface content is better suited to quantitative analysis while latent content, deeper symbolic content, is better suited to qualitative research Why content analysis? - To gain insight into what is deemed significant and made salient in human communications, both reflect and help to shape various aspects of the social world - How individuals and groups imbue meaning in social artefacts which gives us an insight into society - Examines data in order to understand what they mean to people, what they enable or prevent, and what the information conveyed by them does - A form of unobtrusive research, or methods of studying social behaviour without affecting it     iClicker Qs 1. Pregnant at 15, tammy decided to have her baby. Her parents were upset with her decision and threatened to “cut her off” if she did not complete high school. A difficult pregnancy and embarrassment resulted in her dropping out of school. After the baby was born, her parents said that they would have raised the baby but that she would have to leave the house. At age 16, tammy was on her own and without any money or job skills. She began to work as a prostitute. What kid of explanation is presented in this scenario? a. Idiographic b. Nomothetic c. Probabilistic d. Quantitative 2. Jameelah examined the following categories of undergraduate students: full-time, part-tie, and flex-time. What are these categories know as? a. Mental constructs b. Variables c. Classes d. Attributes     SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Oct 5 , 2016 Lecture 4 – Culture Language Diversity - A huge component in a given society Cultural Diversity - Cultural, linguistic and ethnic background – varies greatly in Canada - We are considered the most multicultural society in the world - The ethnic fractionalization index measures the probability that two randomly selected people from the same country are not of the same ethnic linguistic, or cultural group Multiculturalism - Approximately 55% of respondents in an opinion poll indicated that multiculturalism is good for Canada while 30% regarded it as bad o Why bad?  Employment issues  Rising racism (conflicts)  Could be a response from those races considered “supreme”  Worried about the erosion of national/common identity  The ‘stealing’ of opportunities  Xenophobia; prejudices from media cover  Terrorism Culture - Culture refers to the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society o While a society is made up of people, a culture is made up of ideas, behaviours. And material possessions o Culture includes: how we think, how we act, what we own  In effect, everything we create with our hands and our minds - Material Culture o Physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share. Everything from zippers to our homes and satellites in space - Nonmaterial Culture o Abstract human creations of society that influence people’s behavior. Language, beliefs, values, rules of behaviors, family patterns, and political systems - Culture shapes not only what we do but also what we thin and how we feel – elements of what we commonly, but wrongly, describe as “human nature” o Culture is…. 1. Shared 2. Learned 3. Taken for granted 4. Symbolic (flags, national anthem, Tim Horton’s) 5. Varies across time and space - Culture is learned socially, in social structures from macro (societal systems or stratification) to meso (intermediate groupings like organizations, networks and subcultures     - People in different classes, stages of the life course or generations, genders or ethnic or racialized groups acquire different cultural repertoires o Cultural repertories – things that define a generation, tools o Coming of age ceremonies o - Given the extent of cultural differences in the world and people’s tendency to view their own way of life as ‘natural’, it is no wonder that travelers often find themselves uneasy as they encounter an unfamiliar culture (i.e. culture shock) o Bugs as everyday meals - No way of life is “natural” to humanity, even though most people around the world view Stuart Hall (1986) Discourse Analysis - Strives to deduce the subtle means through which certain dimensions of social reality are naturalized or made to appear commonsensical and unavoidable - Examines how suck naturalized realities benefit the populations endowed with the power to determine how we speak about certain populations, issues, and social processes - In taking instances of communication as its research data, content analysis thus vies to uncover and highlight how varies texts facilitates both the construction and meaning and the ways in which people conceptualize reality. This, of course, also includes the denial of alternative meanings and conceptualizations of reality Language - Our understanding of reality is dependent upon language o Social reality is represented in and by language - Sociologists do not see language as simply mirroring or describing social reality exactly as it exists, but instead see language as influencing our perception of reality - Education is a context where we learn new words that change our understanding and perception of the world around us. The world becomes richer, more complex, and more nuanced as we get additional linguistic tools to both describe and make sense of it o Learning in university – increasing our vocabulary  More precision to describe and understand our world - Language is both context shaping and context dependent (calling indexicality) o i.e. “I love you” o language is constantly changing and moves; so is context  Deviants vs misunderstood - Dynamic Nominalism: Domestic violence, child abuse, marital rape – only objects of intervention once language to describe those phenomena crystallized o Lawyers (to paint a picture of reality to convince judge or jury). Politicians (to sway public to vote or support them), and marketers (to persuade potential customers to buy their products or services) Cultural and Judgement - Ethnocentrism: Tendency for person to judge other cultures exclusively by standards of their own culture o Danger: hierarchy of cultures, prejudice & discrimination Sociology of Culture - Important theoretical perspectives: o Culture as system of classification o Culture as an instrument of power, o Culture as embodied practices     Globalization - Globalization: Process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology o Cultural shifts ytisvi - Cultural globalization: Transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations iClicker Qs 1. The majority of Canadians regard multiculturalism as good for Canada a. True b. False 2. Which approach argues that we should affirm the right of other cultures to practice female genital mutilation if such cultures regard this practice as meaningful and as serving useful functions? a. The human rights perspective b. The cultural relativist perspective c. The ethnocentric perspective d. The cultural personalist perspective     SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Oct 19 , 2016 Lecture 6 – Socialization and Social Interaction Socialization - Socialization: Is a lifelong process by which people learn each others cultures o Norms, values and roles  Roles is behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society  i.e. student, sibling, worker, etc. Formation of the self - Social Psychology – relationship between individuality and social context - The self – a sense of individual identity that allows us to understand who we are in relation to others and to differentiate ourselves from them o Formation of a sense of self begins in childhood and conditions in adolescence o Crystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in lifelong process of socialization Changing theories about self - Freud – Only social interaction allows the self to emerge o i.e. with our parents, developing relationships, with authority o Extremely important relationships really allow our selves to emerge the most - Cooley – Looking Glass Self - Mead – I (individual impulses, self as subject) and Me (generalized other, self as object) o I – goes and do things, interacts, active component o Me – thinking about yourself - Goffman – Multiple Selves o Self as a constellation of multiple selves  Different aspects of people that come out depending on their surroundings, companies, environment with quite a bit of variations  Moving away from the “one true self” o Who we are is a culmination of a lot of different selves we’ve made Habitus – Pierre Bourdieu - Habitus: A system of embodied dispositions, tendencies that organize the ways in which individual perceive the social world around them and react to it o Many of these different individual aspects that are shaped by our social environment will go unnoticed o Habitus is different from habit in one important respect: habitus are not just the consequences of our individual history (i.e. outcomes), but are also generative (i.e. causes) - Systems of durable dispositions where our past experience are integrated into how we behave, which then impact our perceptions, our appreciations, and our actions o i.e. Accents,  Can be a result of rational decision - Leads us to see particular things and understand the world in particular ways, have different tastes and to make key distinctions between what is right and what is wrong and so forth - Impacts behaviour, but at an unconscious rather than conscious level - Self – we are our ways of perceiving valuing and knowing – Sandywell (1996) Gender Socialization     - Gender Socialization is the process through which individuals learn to become feminine/masculine according to expectations current in their society o i.e. How they learn from others on how they dress, speak, act, etc. - Gilligan demonstrated sociological factors help explain differences in sense of self that boys and girls usually develop Agents of Socialization - Families – most important agent of primary socialization, which is process of mastering basic skills required to function in society during childhood - Schools – Increasingly responsible for secondary socialization, or socialization outside the family after childhood - Peer Groups – consist of individuals - Mass Media – have become increasingly important socializing agents in 21 century o We self select what we want to watch/read o Mass media includes o Fastest-growing mass medium is the internet allowing adolescents and adults to engage in self-socialization, which involves choosing socialization influences from the wide variety of mass media offerings  Increasingly have more control on who and what we spend time with - Other agents: religious institutions, athletic teams, youth groups, workplace, etc Resocialization and total institutions - Resocialization: Takes place when powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in people’s values, roles, and self-conception, sometimes against their will o Makes important contribution to lifelong process of social learning o Can occur in total institutions: settings in which people are isolated from larger society and under strict control and constant supervision of a specialized staff (i.e. military, convent, prisons, boarding schools, etc.) Adult socialization and the flexible self - People’s identities change faster, more often, and more completely than they did just a couple of decades ago - Factors contributing to the growing flexibility of the self are: o Globalization - allows some people to combine elements of culture from wide variety of historical periods and geographical settings o Growing ability to fashion new bodies from old (due to technological innovations) o Internet – access to information, building a profile The structure of social interaction - Social Interaction: Is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society o Microstudy of social order o Structured around statuses, roles and norms o Status: Refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy (each person occupies many statuses)  Statuses are occupied, roles are performed - Social interaction requires norms, or generally accepted ways of doing things o Norms: Informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society  Prescriptive Norms: Suggest what a person is expected to do while performing a particular role  Proscriptive norms: Suggest what person is expected not to do while performing a particular role     What Shapes Social Interaction? - They exert a constraining pressure on us o Think of people who unintentionally break norms and are judged for doing so o Individual norms are not universal, norms in a given society often change overtime Social order and everyday life - It is not only individual actions that are patterned; not much of everyday life is also patterned – it exhibits a great deal of regularity and order - This is because much of daily life is characterized by what Harold Garfinkel called background expectancies o Refers to how each social context comes with an associated set of common expectations o Trust: an essential and taken-for-granted part of social relations - i.e. Lining up in queues, merging on the highway, using pedestrian street crossings, etc. Ethnomethodology - Study of methods that ordinary people use – often unconsciously – to make sense of what others do and say - Stresses that everyday interactions could not occur without pre-existing shared norms and understandings o Social interaction requires tacit agreement between actors Dramaturgical analysis: role-playing - Dramaturgical Analysis: (first developed by Goffman) Views social interaction as a sort of play in which people present themselves so that they appear in best possible light - Argues there is no single self, but rather an ensemble of roles people play in various social contexts o Role-playing occurs in both “front stage” (public) settings and “back stage” settings  i.e. public bathrooms Sociology of Emotions - Emotions pervade all social interaction - Rather than being solely spontaneous and uncontrollable reactions to external stimuli, emotions are learned culturally designated emotional responses - Emotion Management: Involves people obeying “feeling rules” and responding appropriately to situations in which they find themselves - Emotion Labour: Is emotion management that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid o i.e. Teachers, sales clerks, nurses, flight attendants     iClicker Questions 1. A child is born into a family, where for the first several years of life the child is influenced by parents and siblings in close, intimate, and caring relationships. What term do sociologists have for this type of socialization? a. Resocialization b. Kin influence c. Primary Socialization d. Secondary Socialization 2. According to functionalist perspective, which of the following is not a function of social institutions? a. It helps promote individual interests b. It provides a sense of purpose c. It teaches new members d. It preserves order     SOC101 – INTRO TO SOCIOLOGY th Oct 26 , 2016 Lecture 7 – Groups and Organizations The bonds that unite: Speaking of ‘we’ - Looking at how individuals are brought together within larger configurations of people. How does this occur, under what circumstances and with what effects? o What purpose do these groups have? o Why are we drawn to joining particular groups? o What does our memberships to these groups mean, etc. - Another way of putting it: who do we mean when we say ‘all of us’, ‘we demand’, and ‘we would agree’, who is the ‘we’? o How is it constituted? Social Groups - A collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another person and share a sense of belonging o Can also say they are composed of set of people who identify with one another, and adhere to defined norms, roles, or statuses o i.e. Members of a family, sports team, college Primary groups - Groups where norms, roles and statuses are agreed upon but not put in writing o Social interaction leads to strong emotional ties, extends over long periods, and involves a wide range of activities o Results in group members knowing one another well  i.e. The family (most important) Secondary groups - Larger groups and more impersonal o Social interaction in narrow range of activities over shorter periods of time that create weaker emotional ties  i.e. Sociology class Inclusion and exclusion: In-groups and out-groups - In-Group members: Those who belong to a group o In-group members typically draw boundary separating themselves from members of out-group
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