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Introductory to Sociology - SOC101Y1 - Exam Review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Adam Green

SOCIOLOGY EXAM REVIEW FOR SOC101Y1 This Exam Study Package Includes1New Society Chapter Summary Notes on Chapters 1 6 8 13 14 16 18 19 and 202Lecture Notes on the Chapters above 3Definitions from Sociology as a Life or Death IssueChapters 3 and 6This Exam Study Package Excludes1Video 132Chapter Summary Notes on Chapters 3 and 6 ofSociology as a Life or Death Issue3Handouts from Tutorials 46CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCING SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGYthe systematic study of human behaviour in social context social causes are distinct from physical and emotional causes THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SUICIDE th Canadas suicide rate places 36 among the 74 countries that publish suicide statisticsPeople are likely to focus on the individual states of mind of suicide committers rather than on the state of society to understand why some would commit such an actPeople usually do not think about the patterns of social relations that might encourage such actions in generalSociology can reveal hidden social causes THE SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF SUICIDE th At the end of the 19 century French sociologist Emile Durkheim demonstrated that suicide is more than just an individual act of desperation resulting from psychological disorderShowed that suicide rates are strongly influenced by social forcesMade his case by examining the association between rates of suicide and rates of psychological disorder for different groupsHe reasoned that if psychological disorders cause suicide the rates of both would be high and low simultaneously but his analysis of European government statistics hospital records and other sources revealed nothing of the kindCLEARLY SUICIDE RATES AND RATES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS DID NOT VARY PROPPORTIONATELYDurkheim argued that suicide rates vary because of differences in the degree of social solidarity refers to the degree to which group members share beliefs and values and the intensity and frequency of their interaction in different groupsArgued that as the level of social solidarity increases the suicide rate declines and then beyond a certain point it starts to rise hence the ushape in his graphSuicides that occur in high solidarity settings are altruistic which means devotion to the interests of others occurs when norms tightly govern behaviour so individual actions are often in the group interest example when soldiers knowingly give up their lives to protect members of the unit and kill themselves out of a deep sense of comradeshipSuicides that occur in low levels of social solidarity are egoistic or anomicEgoistic suicide results from a lack of integration of the individual into society because of weak social ties to others whenpeople dont belong Anomic suicide occurs when norms governing behaviour are vaguely defined example when people live in a society that lacks a widely shared code of moralitySUICIDE IN CANADAMen are about four times more likely than women are to commit suicideIn Canada today suicide among people between 1564 is more common having increased substantially since the 1960sHence suicide rates do not increase steadily with ageDurkheims theory of social solidarity helps one understand why suicide has risen quickly in Canada o Church synagogue mosque and temple attendance is down for young people o Unemployment is up especially for youth o The rate of divorce has increased and outofmarriage births are more common this suggests that youth enjoy less frequent and intimate social interaction with parents and less adult supervisionThis shows that the level of social solidarity is lower for young peopleSOCIAL STRUCTURESstable patterns of social relationsTYPES OF SOCIAL STRUCTURES 1 MIRCOSTRUCTURESare patterns of intimate social relationsformed during facetoface interactionexamples include families friendship circles and work associations 2 MACROSTRUCTURESAre patterns of social relations that lie outside and above you circle of interactions and acquaintancesInclude class relations and patriarchy the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men in societies 3 GLOBAL STRUCTURESExamples include international organizations patterns of worldwide travel and communications and the economic relations between countriesAre increasingly important as inexpensive travel and communication allow all parts of the world to become interconnected culturally economically and politicallySOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATIONthe ability to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures neither the life of an individual nor the history of a society can be understood without understanding both was born when three modern revolutions pushed people to think about society in an entirely new wayORIGINS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION 1 SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONBegan about 1550Encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society must be based on solid evidence not just on speculationStressed that science is less a collection of ideas and more on a method of inquiryThe core using evidence to make a case for a particular point of view
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