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Final SOC 207 Exam Notes.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George

SOC 207 Final Notes Notebook: UfT Created: 4/7/2013 4:34 PM Updated: 4/7/2013 9:59 PM Chapters: Good Jobs/Bad Jobs; Unions; Meaning of Work & Alienation; Stress and Health Good Jobs/ Bad Jobs and Worker Resistance (Unions and Strikes) Good Jobs/ Bad Jobs Income and occupations - more money/ more status? unequal distribution of pay within occupations white, blue, pink collar minorities students strong correlation to skill and income Employment benefits - security/ fringe benefits "indirect pay or increased security" Employment Insurance (EI), CPP, Workers comp, paid sick leave, maternity/paternity leave Fringe benefits Full time, professionals, unionized better off Personal health risks - worker injury, death, compensation 1993-2005 - 11k Canadians (4/day) died on the job greater odds than killed on the road construction, transportation production jobs employees and government regulators taking greater precautions since 1980 OSHA "Safe at Work Ontario" $4.65 billion -1998 union protection plays a role mental health costs? additional work stress-ors? professional sports? Bad Jobs Non-standard and Precarious Work "Employment situations that deviate from the"standard employment relationship" (SER) SER "refers to a normative model of employment where the worker has one employer, works full time, year round on the employers premises under his/her supervision, enjoys extensive statutory benefits and entitlements and expects to be employed indefinitely" stability in schedule, location and future employment Non-standard Wor nk:standard employees a growing periphery/secondary labour market working fewer hours, not enough work hours highest in 15-24, 65+ lowest in 25-50 emphasis on flexibility and cost reduction includes Part time work (less than 30hrs/week) grown since 1970s 19% in 2008 service sector: most common sector for workers, by nature most part-timers women 68% of workforce 18-24 multiple jobs self-employment temporary or contract jobs contracting, seasonal, agency workers, temps 12% in 2008 equal gender distribution large increase in lst 10 yrs freelancing pays less, fewer benefits, less security non-standard vs Precarious work Precarious work refers to “…forms of employment involving atypical employment contracts, limited social benefits and statutory entitlements, job insecurity, low job tenure, low earnings, poor working conditions and risks to ill health” (Cranford et al. p. 99). How does this differ from nonstandard work? Nonstandard work encompasses all employment situations deviating from the SER. This approach, however, is too broad to really assess the proliferation of bad jobs.. Precarious work refers ONLY to nonstandard work that embody the aforementioned features, and therefore are detrimental to the individual. These are the truly “bad jobs” Precarious Work Gendered gendered - gender shapes the social relations in key institutions that organize society (family, workplace) differences between men and women seen as 'social inequalities' Feminization of employment norms decline of SER after WWII (largely based on ideal male worker) unstable globabl economy leads to nonstandard types of jobs women occupied most of these, and among the most precarious justified by unexpected social obligations women's overrepresented in work implies association in employment norms feminized work, therefore devalued Eg stewardess. Feminzation of employment norms “….denotes the erosion of the standard employment relationship as a norm and the spread of non-standard forms of employment that exhibit qualities of precarious employment associated with women…” (p. 102) There has been an increase in precarious work from 1989 to 2001 Women are overrepresented in part-time, temporary work (which is the most precarious form of work) Within fulltime and part-time permanent work, women experience more precarious job qualities (lower firm size, less union protection, and reduced wages) compared to their male counterparts Men experience more precarious job qualities in full-time and part-time temporary work, which may highlight the feminization of these types of jobs. The authors suggest these findings provide evidence of the feminization of employment norms. Do you? Unions and Strikes Why do workers unionize? Five reasons (Poole 1981) Moral institution Against injustices and inequalities Revolutionary organization Overthrow capitalism Psychological defense mechanism Against the threat of capitalism Response to economic realities Low quality work conditions Political organizations Extending workers’ rights Conflict vs Cooperation Compared to industrial relations perspectives, sociologists take a more critical approach to unions. “…continuous process of pressure and counter-pressure” (Hyman 1975, p. 26) Unions represent the organizational body that fight to maintain and retain control over work relations. The labour process & rewards of work Conflict key forcollective bargainingand reaching a collective agreement. Managers must be faced with the threat of worker disruption to ensure they treat their employees fairly. Not always a zero-sum game (i.e., both sides can win). Third party arbitrators (i.e., government; police) Consequences of Conflict: What happens when unions cannot collective deal with management? A strike is “[a] temporary stoppage of work willfully effected by a group of workers, or by one or more employers, with the view to enforcing a demand” (qtd. in KLH, p. 390;Lacroix1986, p. 172) Can occur after a strike vote, but also unauthorized strikes (i.e.,wildcat strikes); can focus on labour or have a political agenda Strikes could be considered a “necessary process of labour relations” Key word here being relations, suggesting there are two parties involved in every strike (p. 392) Marxist Opinion of Unions For Marxists, unions contradict the position of the proletariat relative to the owner, by trying to contend the worker in the confines of management regulation, or capitalism more broadly Unions can “control” workers’ discontents by channelling problems through a regulatory body and finding formal solutions, without disrupting the capitalist agenda & complying with higher forms of authority Union representatives (steward): While democratic, the legitimacy of union democracy is questionable Michels’ Iron Law of Oligarchy Rule by Elite is inevitable as an Iron Law within any organization as part of the tactical and technical necessities of organization. Are unions good or bad for workers? Negative perspective: Big labour image (lowe and Krahn 1989) Struggle within the confines of capitalism The monopoly face (freeman and Medoff 1984) Positive perspective Business unionism (lowe and krahn 1989) the Union wage premium and related benefits protection against precarious circumstances (cranford et all 2006) the "collective voice" (freeman and medoff 1984) Youth and visible minorities are especially in favor Craft unionism Divided by skill, gender, and occupation Carpenters, cabinet makers, blacksmiths, shoemakers Trade Unions Act (1872; Toronto printers) Trades & Labour Congress (1883; Nine Hour Movement) Controlled access to craft (labour market shelter) Industrial Unionism All workers in an industry are represented by the same union regardless of skill Knights of Labour (1875; Hamilton); One Big Union (1919 Winnipeg General Strike) Breakthrough: UAW (CIO) Canadian Labour Congress (craft and industry unite!) 2008 Cad Union membership at 29.4% Loss of good jobs, growth of bad Women and racial minorities underrepresented in unions and these are the groups that need the most protection, given their over-representation in precarious work. At first glance, appears that unions have done a good job; however, “…[u]nionsdo not seek out organizing opportunities amongst women workers; rather women go in search of a union to represent them” (Yates p. 623). Unions rarely make the attempt to organize racial minorities, despite the growing rate in manufacturing and other related industries Reasons: 1) ‘white’ face of unions; 2) reduced resources; 3) labour market vulnerability Good jobs versus bad jobs Bad jobs reflect growth from core to periphery of Precarious work; The gender of precarious work (Cranford et al. 2006) Erosion of SER, feminization of employment norms Protection? Unions can maintain control overlabourprocess and reward Limitations…. Silencing workers and minority under-representation Movie Clip: Made in Dagenham Background Rita O'Grady leads the 1968 Ford sewing machinists strike at the Ford Dagenham plant, where female workers walk out in protest against sexual discrimination, demanding equal pay. The strike is successful and leads to the Equal Pay Act 1970. Themes to think about Do these women have “good jobs” or “bad jobs”? Why Does the union represent their interests? How does this piece relate to the following ideas: Unions as managers of discontent The feminization of employment norms Michels’ Iron Law of Oligarchy Monopoly face of unions The Meaning of Work and Alienation: Job Satisfaction and Exploitation in the 21stCentury The meaning of work Job, career, and calling orientations Job orientation - economic Career orientation - recognition, dignity Calling orientation - ideological, cause related Protestant work ethic and humanist tradition Max Weber The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1958) “There is just one best way to serve God—to do so perfectly the work of one’s profession” (Martin Luther). The reformation changed the perspective of work, dignifying the most mundane of jobs (Calvinism) These religious beliefs gave rise to the values associated with capitalism today. Helped foster an ideology that promoted profit seeking behaviour, and motivated workers. Work as self-fulfillment The humanist tradition Work is seen as a “fulfilling and liberating activity, and that it constitutes the very essence of humanity” (p. 417) Marx – “Species being…” Modern views on work orientations (Lockwood, Bunting) Instrumental worker Work an “instrument” to obtain a better standard of living (p. 426) The modern worker? (Goldthorpeet al. 1969) Limited job choices? (Blackburn and Mann 1979; Sennett and Cobb 1972) The Overwork Culture Madeleine Bunting (2004) “Willing Slaves” Overwork a symbol of status and pride Work-life balance? “the good life” rather than “the goods life” (Swift 1995) Variations in Values and Orientations Cross cultural variations? Collectivist versus individualist Gender? Women place less value on work? Blair-Loy 2003 Structural constraints Generations? baby-boomers, X, and Y Youth still have strong work ethic, but anxiety about future jobs What about the unemployed? A loss of identity, stability, and independence Job satisfaction Definition, prevalence,determinants What is job satisfaction? The extent to which workers are content with their job Affective and cognitive satisfaction Why do we care? In Canada approximately 70% of workers are satisfied with their job (Graham Lowe Group 2004). Herzberg's two-factor theory of satisfaction Critique of Herzberg – structural approach Consider individual differences Which matters more for job satisfaction—individual orientations or structural rewards? Kalleberg(1977) ASR “Work Values and Job Rewards” Both matter Job satisfaction results from the proper pairing of orientation AND work rewards Orientation can lead to greater dissatisfaction Kalleberg: Six dimensions of work Intrinsic rewards Career opportunities Financial rewards relationships with coworkers Convenience Resource adequacy Alienation Marxist, social-psychological, and competing perspectives Four dimensions of alienation 1.From the product of his labour 2.From the act of producing 3.From him/herself, as a producer; hisspecies-essence/being 4. From other workers Optimistic views… Robert Blauner (1964) “Alienation and Freedom” Industrialization would provide less alienating work conditions because of technology Rejects capitalism as always alienating Freedom as ability to choose work Technology is a major determinant to degree of alienation priniting industriy, low levels of alienation, high skill automobile industry, high alienation, low skill predicted as technology advances, less workers needed in high alienation jobs technological determinism by those who control the firm Alternative views… Richard Sennett (1998) “The Corrosion of Character” Postmodern flexibility leads to a loss of identity constant restructuring of work organization, focus on flexibility of production delivery of services constant change leads to no firm psychology for worker. erosion Critiques and contrary evidence…what about the person? Burawoy (1979) “Manufacturing Consent” Scientific management approach to consent. Randy Hodson (1991) “The Active Worker” Workers exercise creativity and autonomy within alienated jobs Compliance vs Autonomy Hodson (1991) Migrant Labour Types of migrant workers Temporary migrants Seasonal workers migrate from home country for limited amount of time E.g., Mexican farmers (Basok2004) Transnational migrants Work in one nation, but maintain strong ties with home country E.g., Filipina domestic workers (Parrenas2000) Growth in migrant labour influenced by need for cheap, temporary labour Prevalence (Canadian, by gender and skill) Theorie
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